At 50 μg/ml, the comet tail length was reduced by 68% compared to that produced by the control, indicating 68% protection. This is the first report on ginger that proves its DNA protective effects against H2O2-induced DNA damage. A dose-dependent decrease in DNA damage was observed in cells treated with caraway, cardamom, star anise, ginger, fennel and cumin. Most of the spices
used in this study were effective in protecting against DNA damage (ranging from 10% to 68%) and this can be attributed to their antioxidant-rich learn more phenolic constituents. Phytochemical studies on ginger showed that gingerol and shogaols are the major phenols in ginger ( Schwertner & Rios, 2007). Jolad, Lantz, Chen, Bates, and Timmermann (2005) identified 115 compounds in dry ginger, among which shogaols were found
in higher concentrations than gingerol. A potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity was exhibited by shogaol and gingerol ( Dugasani et al., 2010). An in vivo study on mice revealed that -gingerol PS-341 inhibits angiogenesis and lung metastasis ( Kim et al., 2005). Pharmacological properties, like the reduction of fructose-induced elevation of lipids, blood pressure lowering effect, protection against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity and radiation, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities were exhibited by ginger ( Ali, Blunden, Tanira, & Nemmar, 2008). The present study describes the protective effects of spice
extracts against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and suggests that the use of spices in the daily diet will reduce the effects of free radical induced carcinogenesis. Most of the deaths from cancer are caused by cancer cell only metastasis that involves two phases: first, physical translocation of cancer cells to a distant organ, and second, development of cancer cells into a lesion at that organ (Chaffer & Weinberg, 2011). Recent studies have attempted to understand the mechanisms underlying cancer cell metastasis and their prevention by dietary phytochemicals (Weng & Yen, 2012). Nicotine facilitates cell migration in human lung cancer cells through the induction of phosphorylation of μ- and m-calpains (Xu & Deng, 2006). We studied the effect of spices on nicotine-induced cancer cell migration in the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Cells incubated for 24 h with 10 μM of nicotine induced cancer cell migration, indicating that nicotine is responsible for metastasis and induction of secondary cancers. To test the effect of spices on this aspect of nicotine toxicity, MCF-7 cells were pre-treated with spices and then exposed to nicotine. The results of cell migration analysis showed that all the spice extracts inhibited cancer cell migration (Fig. 3); fewer cells migrated across the gap with increasing spice concentration.