However, optimal treatment has not been established Between 2000

However, optimal treatment has not been established. Between 2000 and 2009, 267 patients with huge HCC (≥ 10 cm) underwent TACE and 84 underwent SR as the first treatment. Propensity score matching generated a matched cohort composed of 152 patients. We investigated overall survival and possible prognostic factors. At baseline, the surgery group showed a tendency to have solitary tumor (72.6% vs 39.3%, P < 0.001), less vessel invasion (29.8% vs 51.3%, P < 0.001), and unilobar tumor extent (77.4% vs 50.9%, P < 0.001) than TACE group. During median follow up of 10 months (range: 0–103), the surgery group

showed higher 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates than TACE group (73.8%, 54.8%, and 39.8% vs 37.8%, 16.3%, and 9.7%, NVP-AUY922 supplier respectively, P < 0.001). In the propensity score-matched cohort, baseline characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Surgery group showed higher 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates than TACE group (69.7%, 58.6%, and 51.7% vs 40.2%, 33.9%,

and 18.5%, respectively, P < 0.001) during median follow up of 14.5 months (range: check details 0–103). Multivariate analysis revealed that male (HR 1.90; 95% CI, 1.01–3.58; P = 0.048), albumin (HR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34–0.85; P = 0.008), ascites (HR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.02–3.08; P = 0.044), and SR (HR 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28–0.70; P = 0.001) were the independent prognostic factors associated with survival. Comparing survival after SR and TACE, we showed that SR would be associated with better outcomes than TACE as the first treatment of huge HCC. “
“We thank Drs. Caturelli and Ghittoni for drawing attention to our study. We are, however, unsure if due diligence was given to Tacrolimus (FK506) the review and interpretation of our article. Caturelli and Ghittoni contend that the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among indeterminate nodules in our study is too low. As mentioned in the Discussion section,

our reported incidence of 13%-24% is well within the range of 9%-33% reported by three European studies.1 The reason for the low incidence is the more sensitive imaging diagnostic criteria for 1-2 cm HCC in the updated American Association for the Study of Liver (AASLD) guidelines, where now one of two, rather than both, positive contrast imaging scan is required for diagnosis of malignancy.2 Furthermore, their suggestion that a smaller criterion for nodule growth than our 30% increase in diameter be used is highly unrealistic, given inter- and intraobserver variability for measuring 1-2 cm nodules. Precisely for this reason were the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria revised to the current 1.1 version. A criterion of a minimum of 5 mm growth in the single largest diameter of target lesion was added to avoid interpreting measurement error in small lesions as progressive disease.3 Caturelli and Ghittoni indicate puzzlement as to why some of our nodules were not visible on grayscale ultrasound.

Overall, our results suggest a high variability in the antioxidan

Overall, our results suggest a high variability in the antioxidant pool of natural aquatic ecosystems, which can be subject to short-term temperature, photon flux density and salinity fluctuations. The antioxidant levels in natural phytoplankton communities depend on species composition, the physiological condition of the species, and their respective strategies to deal with reactive oxygen species. Since α-tocopherol and RAD001 β-carotene, as well as many other nonenzymatic antioxidants, are exclusively produced by photo-synthetic organisms, and are required by higher

trophic levels through dietary intake, regime shifts in the phytoplankton as a result of large-scale environmental changes, such as climate change, may have serious consequences for aquatic food webs. “
“The macroalga Ulva limnetica K. Ichihara et S. Shimada is the only known Ulva species to be distributed exclusively in freshwater and is restricted to freshwater Olaparib bodies in the Ryuku archipelago. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that U. limnetica originally evolved from marine forms of Ulva. The mechanisms of adaptation to freshwater in Ulva spp. are poorly understood. In this study, we isolated genes potentially involved in adaptation or tolerance to freshwater conditions in

U. limnetica, using suppression subtractive hybridization between mRNAs of samples cultured in freshwater and seawater conditions. A total of 219 genes, up-regulated by the exposure of the macroalga to freshwater, were isolated. Reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR) revealed 39 clones, including malate dehydrogenase, soluble starch synthase, triosephosphate isomerase, plastid ribosomal protein, DnaJ-like protein, and

chloroplast ascorbate peroxidase (APX), which were specifically 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase or preferentially expressed in freshwater conditions. These 39 clones were also analyzed for their temporal transcriptional response to freshwater conditions. A large majority of these up-regulated genes showed a transient peak of expression after 1–4 h, followed in the next 24 h by a decrease to a stable level (over the 7 d of the experiment). After the initial response peak, the level of expression either remained higher than in the control (long-term response) or returned to a level similar to pretreatment level. A few genes showed a more delayed response (i.e., after several days) to freshwater exposure. Finally, we discussed the possible contributions of the freshwater-induced genes in the acquisition of freshwater adaptation or tolerance of U. limnetica. “
“The ichthyotoxic flagellate Pseudochattonella has formed recurrent blooms in the North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat since 1998. Five strains of Pseudochattonella farcimen and two strains of P.

Furthermore, because AIH can recur after liver transplantation, w

Furthermore, because AIH can recur after liver transplantation, we hypothesized that those patients with histological features of autoimmunity would be more likely to develop chronic hepatitis in their native livers if they recovered

from ALF, or to develop recurrent allograft hepatitis after liver transplantation. AI-ALF, autoimmune acute liver failure; AIH, autoimmune hepatitis; AMA, antimitochondrial antibodies; ANA, antinuclear antibodies; anti-LKM, anti-liver/kidney microsome; anti-SLA, anti-soluble liver antigen; anti-tTG, anti-tissue transglutaminase; APAP, acetaminophen; ASMA, anti-smooth muscle antibody; HBV, hepatitis B virus; IAIHG, International Autoimmune Enzalutamide molecular weight Hepatitis Group; INR,

international normalized ratio; MHN, massive hepatic necrosis; OLT, orthotopic liver transplantation; SDC, simplified diagnostic criteria for AIH. The study population was BMN 673 cell line enrolled in the ALF Study Group Registry between 1998 and 2008. Entry criteria included ALF (coagulopathy [international normalized ratio INR ≥ 1.5] and hepatic encephalopathy within 26 weeks of the onset of illness, in a patient without previously recognized liver disease).15 Study subjects were chosen from a total registry of 1100 patients on the basis of having an indeterminate evaluation for the etiology of ALF, defined as: (1) no serologic evidence of acute viral hepatitis, (2) no evidence of ischemic liver injury (acute Budd-Chiari syndrome or “shock liver,”), and (3) no evidence of drug-induced hepatotoxicity (history of APAP overdose or recent prescription drug or over-the-counter herbal exposure). Patients with suspected acute Wilson disease or liver failure related to malignancy or pregnancy were also excluded. These criteria identified a subpopulation of 204 patients with ALF of indeterminate

etiology, some of whom had detectable autoantibodies on admission and were thereby suspected of having AIH. However, because autoantibodies are often nonspecific, they were considered nondiagnostic for the purposes of this study. Attempts were made to recover liver samples from each of 204 patients meeting the inclusion criteria above. Records indicated that 61 subjects Endonuclease had neither liver biopsies nor explant pathology available. Of the 143 potential samples, tissue was recovered from 79 (55%) for histological evaluation. Adequate liver tissue for analysis was recovered in 72 cases (50% of total); specimens from seven subjects were inadequate for diagnosis due to small size. Forty-six samples were obtained from liver explants and 26 from transjugular liver biopsies. Clinical and serological characteristics of the 204 total patients and the subset of 72 with liver tissue available were similar, suggesting that the latter was a balanced subset of the former (data not shown).

Systemic vascular diseases can directly lead to impaired hepatic

Systemic vascular diseases can directly lead to impaired hepatic blood flow through vascular stenosis after endothelial changes/injury or indirectly by causing obliteration due to thrombi generation. GET is another endotheliopathy characterized by widespread telangiectasias with primarily cutaneous involvement, whereas internal organs

are usually not affected. Here we describe for the first time a patient with NRH in association with the vascular disorder GET. The availability of a liver biopsy for molecular analysis from our patient allowed measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of genes that are known to regulate endothelial differentiation. In comparison

to controls,[4] we observed a down-regulation of Notch1, Dll4, EphrinB2, and Tek in our patient (Fig. 1F). These genes have selleck compound recently been shown to be implicated in the process of vascular remodeling in a murine model displaying features of NRH after deletion of Notch1.5 NRH occurred as a secondary event following activation of the sinusoidal endothelium, with ensuing vascular dedifferentiation and intussusceptive angiogenesis. Furthermore, down-regulation of the same set of genes was confirmed in NRH patients.[4] Thus, also on the genetic level, endothelial involvement in the pathogenesis of NRH was proven in the selleck products presented case. In conclusion, we describe the first case of NRH in a patient with general essential telangiectasia. Our findings suggest that NRH is the hepatic manifestation of this systemic endotheliopathy. Molecular analysis showing dysregulated Notch, Ephrin, and Tek signaling is in line with the recent description in a murine NRH model, further strengthening the hypothesis that NRH is driven by a vascular disorder. “
“This chapter discusses the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of malnutrition in liver diseases. The most common form of macronutrient deficiency in ESLD is protein–energy

Oxymatrine malnutrition (PEM). Nutritional screening for malnutrition and dietary education should be offered to all patients with chronic liver disease. The diagnostic approach to patients with chronic liver disease includes a thorough history including nutritional assessment, physical examination and appropriate laboratory studies. Body weight can be misleading in patients with ascites and peripheral edema. In patients with compensated cirrhosis, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism recommend that patients consume 25–35 kcal/kg ABW per day of total energy source and 1.0–1.2 g/kg ABW per day of protein to maintain a positive nitrogen balance. Malnutrition is associated with significant mortality in patients with cirrhosis.

In subsequent years the patient was admitted several times for he

In subsequent years the patient was admitted several times for hepatic encephalopathy. In June 2011 a routine ultrasound showed a new 1-cm hypoechoic

mass in the dome of the liver which was indeterminate on contrast CT scan. The alphafetoprotein level was 117.5 ng/mL. The lesion grew to 1.9 × 1.4 × GW-572016 price 1.7 cm in March 2012 on ultrasonography. On contrast CT the lesion was hypervascular but indeterminate, as it measured less than 1 cm (Fig. 1A,B). The AFP was 107.6 ng/mL in October 2011 but was 4.3 ng/mL in May 2012 (Fig. 1C). Due to the increasing size of the lesion an ultrasound-guided biopsy of the liver mass was performed in April 2012 and reviewed by three pathologists who concurred that there was evidence of well-differentiated HCC on a background of HCV cirrhosis (Fig. 2). The patient was HTS assay scheduled for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy and relisted for LT, but

died from complications of liver failure while waiting. HCV accounts for nearly half of all LT done in the U.S. and Europe.[1] Unfortunately, viremia persists in over 95% of patients posttransplant and cirrhosis can occur within 5 years of HCV recurrence in transplant patients,[2, 3] resulting in liver failure and death. HCV is a well-established risk factor for HCC in patients with cirrhosis, but to our knowledge no case has been reported of a patient with recurrent HCV developing HCC posttransplant. The rapid development of HCC in our patient IKBKE was likely multifactorial and related to the development of recurrent HCV. Immunosuppression affects the natural history of recurrent HCV and accelerates the development of cirrhosis.[2] Mechanistically, CD8 T cells are responsible for lysis of tumor and virus-infected cells by way of antigen presentation with up-regulation of cytokines by CD4 T cells.[4] Thus, the T-cell response to HCV is critical in achieving long-term control of the virus and prolonging the time

between viremia and the presence of tumor.[5] Immunosuppressive medications decrease immune-mediated viral elimination and suppress the immune tumor surveillance system. Consequently, transplant recipients have a 2-4 times greater risk of de novo malignancy compared to transplant-naïve patients.[6] Specifically, posttransplant immunosuppression may also promote tumorigenesis. Tacrolimus has been shown to accelerate the doubling time for recurrent HCC from 273 to 37 days[7] and may have accelerated the doubling time of this patient’s cancer. The role of surveillance for HCC is still unclear. AFP levels may be elevated in patients with HCV and this may account for the discordance seen in our patient (Fig. 1D). In conclusion, cirrhosis from recurrent HCV after OLT can be associated with de novo HCC. The incidence and role of surveillance have yet to be defined and need further study.

It has been shown to have an accuracy of 97% compared with fluoro

It has been shown to have an accuracy of 97% compared with fluoroscopy.23 Impedance uses the changes in electrical conductivity

associated with the passage of a bolus to map bolus transit and clearance (Fig. 4). Recent developments have enabled the data to be depicted as a topographical plot as with manometric data. Impedance monitoring is used in combination with manometry in the evaluation of non-obstructive dysphagia (NOD). The value of impedance lies with it being a complementary, rather than competing, tool to manometry by providing information on the functional outcome of motility; namely flow or transit. Thus, impedance allows for inferences to be made about the relationship between abnormalities of motility seen on manometry Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library with abnormalities in bolus transit seen on impedance. The use of viscous boluses also provides Deforolimus clinical trial a more physiological assessment of motility than the more conventional liquid boluses used in manometry. In a multi-centre study on 40 patients with NOD, impedance monitoring was shown to identify abnormalities of transit in 35% of patients with NOD who had apparently normal manometric assessment.24 Conversely, manometric abnormalities do not always translate to abnormal bolus transit.24,25 Bolus transit was normal in up to 15% of patients with manometric diagnosis of ineffective esophageal motility

and one third of patients with diffuse esophageal spasm.24 Impedance, however, is of limited use in patients with achalasia, presumably due to esophageal retention.26 More recently, combined impedance-manometry has also been used to assess oropharyngeal transit and risk of aspiration,27 either as an alternative or adjunct to radiology. Using fluoroscopy as the gold standard, a number of important pressure-flow variables were identified from the combined impedance-manometry assessment which, in turn, was used in an automated analytic program to evaluate the swallow risk index. This approach has been

shown to positively predict pharyngeal dysfunction and risk of aspiration.27 The functional lumen imaging probe is a largely experimental tool not yet in routine clinical use. The technique uses impedance planimetry, which measures Methisazone impedance inside a saline-filled cylindrical balloon, thus allowing calculation of the cross-sectional area of the balloon.8,28,29 This tool has been used to evaluate the opening and pressure across the gastroesophageal junction, and may prove to be useful in assessing patients with achalasia before and after treatment.8 More recently, impedance planimetry has been further modified to measure the axial (or longitudinal) force in the esophagus, rather than the cross-sectional area, which offers additional information regarding the longitudinal propulsive force exerted on a bolus, in addition to horizontal force measured by manometry.

Furthermore, the diagnostic criteria and

Furthermore, the diagnostic criteria and classification scheme have been changing in the past two decades. Management of functional dyspepsia has been disappointing and effective treatment is still lacking. In this issue of JGH, a consensus report on functional dyspepsia has been prepared by a group of opinion leaders in Asia.1 In this report, a critical appraisal is conducted on various topics related to functional dyspepsia in Asia. There is also a comprehensive

review on the current practice, which includes diagnosis and management, of functional dyspepsia. There are several merits in this report. The report highlights some distinct clinical characteristics of functional dyspepsia that are unique to Asian patients. For example, Asian patients tend to have higher proportion of

postprandial distress syndrome. Some important differential diagnoses of dyspepsia, which are far less common in Western population, are emphasized. These include parasitic infestation and hepatocellular carcinoma due to high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in this region. Instead of endorsing the statements of the Rome criteria, this report casts doubt on the validity of the Rome diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia in Asian patients. Since dyspepsia is transient and self-limiting in many patients, it is prudent for the Rome criteria to establish a minimum requirement of 6 months for the diagnosis so as to avoid over-diagnosis.2 However, significant morbidity occurs Staurosporine price as early as 4 weeks after the onset

of dyspepsia in many Asian patients. Furthermore, owing to the marked ethnic difference in cultural and linguistic origin, there may be substantial variation in the accuracy of Rome criteria in Asian population and further validation not studies are needed. For the management of functional dyspepsia, this report also underscores the possible inferior therapeutic benefit of proton pump inhibitor, presumably due to the lower prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asian patients with functional dyspepsia. Helicobacter pylori infection is another important topic that is significantly different from the Western counterparts. In the Rome criteria, there is no need to exclude H. pylori infection for the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia. Compared with the Western population, however, the prevalence of H. pylori and its related diseases such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are much higher in Asian population. These conditions are the major differential diagnoses of functional dyspepsia, even in the absence of alarm symptom. Furthermore, the prevalence of a virulent strain of H. pylori is substantially higher in Asian populations. It has also been postulated that severe corpus-predominant gastritis is more commonly seen in Asian patients.3 This may contribute to higher risk of gastric atrophy and gastric cancer. Owing to these virulent factors, it has been proposed that H.

pylori, while T  gondiigondii seropositivity was linked to elevat

pylori, while T. gondiigondii seropositivity was linked to elevated IgE, pro-inflammatory Th1-IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 responses to H. pylori. Individuals with high T. gondii titers had reduced Th1-IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4

responses to H. pylori. Conclusions:  Results support regional differences for childhood parasitism and indicate A. lumbricoides and T. gondii infections may impact inflammatory responses to H. pylori and partially explain differences in gastric cancer risk in Colombia. “
“Background:  Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in the gastric cancer progression. The study validated whether OPN expressions correlate with Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastric inflammation and the precancerous change as intestinal metaplasia Selleck Quizartinib (IM). Methods:  This study included 105 H. pylori-infected patients (63 without and 42 with IM) Sotrastaurin mw and 29 H. pylori-negative controls. In each subject, the gastric OPN expression intensity was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and graded from 0 to 4 for the epithelium, lamina propria, and areas with IM, respectively. For the H. pylori-infected subjects, the gastric inflammation was assessed by the Updated Sydney System. Forty-nine patients received follow-up endoscopy to assess OPN change on gastric mucosa after H. pylori eradication. The in vitro cell-H. pylori coculture

were performed to test the cell origin of OPN. Results:  The H. pylori-infected patients had higher gastric OPN expression than the noninfected controls (p < .001). For the H. pylori-infected patients, an increased OPN expression correlated with more severe chronic gastric inflammation (p < .001) and the presence of IM (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.15–5.94, p = .02). Within the same gastric bits, lamina propria expressed OPN stronger than epithelium (p < .001), suggesting OPN predominantly originates from inflammatory cells. Sclareol The in vitro assay confirmed H. pylori stimulate OPN expression in the monocytes, but not

in the gastric epithelial cells. After H. pylori eradication, the gastric OPN expression could be decreased only in areas without IM (p < .05). Conclusions:  Increased gastric OPN expression by H. pylori infection can correlate with a more severe gastric inflammation and the presence of IM. "
“Background:  To accelerate the decline of Helicobacter pylori infection, and to study the significance of the possible risk factors for H. pylori infection in Finland, we started a voluntary H. pylori“screen-treat-retest-and-retreat” program for all young adults at primary health care in Vammala, Finland after a pilot study in 1994 including 504 subjects aged 15–75. Materials and Methods:  A total of 3326 aged 15–40 in 1996, and 716 aged 15 and 584 aged 45 in 1997–2000 were screened for H. pylori using serology. Helicobacter pylori positive were treated, cure was verified by serology. Results:  The eradication rates were 93.8%, 82.2%, and 77.

005, P = 0 001; DEST = 0 031, P = 0 001, n = 364) and mitochondri

005, P = 0.001; DEST = 0.031, P = 0.001, n = 364) and mitochondrial control region sequences (FST = 0.017 and ΦST = 0.069, P = 0.001, n = 364). Bayesian clustering analyses using microsatellite data could not resolve any population structure unless sampling location was provided as a prior. This study supports the emerging evidence that weak genetic differentiation is characteristic among neighboring Southern Hemisphere humpback whale LDK378 research buy breeding populations. This may be a consequence of relatively high gene flow facilitated by overlapping summer feeding areas in Antarctic waters. For many marine species, ecological and environmental

discontinuities such as ocean currents, changes in bathymetry and ocean temperature are increasingly being identified as cryptic barriers to gene flow and dispersal (Kaschner et al. 2006, Knutsen et al. 2009, Unal and Bucklin 2010, Mikkelsen 2011, Shen et al. 2011). The influence of social and learned behaviors that may also establish or reinforce population boundaries are less understood. Such factors may be highly relevant to cetacean species that exhibit complex communication and social behaviors and where migratory behavior is thought to be learned through social inheritance from the mother to the calf (Clapham 1996, Hauser et al. 2007). Therefore, despite their high vagility, cetaceans

may exhibit highly structured populations primarily driven by nonphysical barriers (Hoelzel 1998). Like other balaenopterid species, humpback whales undertake long-distance seasonal migrations between low latitude winter breeding this website and calving grounds and high latitude summer feeding grounds (Fig. 1; Mackintosh 1965). These whales also exhibit a large range of social and sexual behaviors, have strong maternal fidelity, and are renowned for

their repertoire of complex culturally acquired “songs” and calls (Clapham 1996, Noad et al. 2000, Valsecchi et al. 2002, Smith et al. 2008). Historically, humpback whale populations have been defined based on the distribution of calving areas and migratory routes and these populations have been treated as management units in the apportionment of catch quotas for commercial whaling (Kellogg 1929, Chittleborough 1965, Mackintosh 1965, Dawbin 1966). More recently, because demographic studies are difficult to undertake, genetic Plasmin analysis of mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear markers has been applied to gain insights on population structure, dispersal and mating systems. In the Northern Hemisphere, humpback whale populations are geographically separated by the American and Asia–European continents (Baker et al. 1986; Palsbøll et al. 1995; Calambokidis et al. 1996; Clapham 1996; Palsbøll et al. 1997a; Clapham et al. 1999; Calambokidis et al. 2001, 2008) and within each ocean basin, individuals from common breeding grounds can show strong fidelity to different discrete foraging areas (Calambokidis et al. 2001, Stevick et al. 2006).

4), which might propose the possibility that patients with early

4), which might propose the possibility that patients with early compensated liver cirrhosis might have been misstratified as having CHB according to clinical criteria. Finally, when the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was made by clinical criteria and LSM simultaneously, the incidence of HCC was the highest (5.84%

person-year). All these results suggest that LSM might be a more reliable method for diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis than clinical criteria, and that LSM can identify the optimal time to recall surveillance program for these high-risk patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. Importantly, although the performance of LSM for the prediction of early compensated liver cirrhosis in cross-sectional studies has already been investigated,20, find more 36 this is the first study to suggest

the usefulness of LSM in the diagnosis of early compensated liver cirrhosis in a prospective and longitudinal setting by investigating a clinical endpoint, defined as the risk of HCC development. Interestingly, the overall incidence of HCC differed significantly according to the LSM change (Fig. 5). These results p38 MAPK activity suggest that serial measurements of the LSM can be used as a dynamic indicator of the risk of HCC development; these findings are supported by previous studies.37 The incidence of liver-related complications was investigated further. However, the stratified LSM was not significant in the multivariate analysis. However, because the number of patients with HCC development and liver-related complications seems to be small in our study, confirmative longitudinal observation studies should be followed. Our study has some limitations. First, because liver biopsy data were not available at enrollment, the exact status of liver background was not informed; therefore, we could not provide additional information on the performance of LSM in predicting HCC development in comparison with liver biopsy. Second, the method we used to assess serum HBV DNA had low sensitivity, which caused difficulties in estimating the association between the serum HBV DNA

level and HCC development and in characterizing our study population completely from inactive Nabilone carriers to active hepatitis. Third, our follow-up period was relatively short; consequently, the role of LSM as a predictor of HCC development in patients with CHB should be confirmed in subsequent studies with long-term follow-up periods. Finally, our results can only be applied to a subpopulation of patients with CHB showing limited ALT level (≤5 times the upper limit of normal).33, 38 However, when ALT levels subside after active antiviral treatment in patients with elevated ALT, the reliability of LSM may be restored as indicated in the previous study,38 and LSM may be used as a significant predictor of HCC development.