Methods We retrospectively reviewed 439 consecutive cases sent to

Methods We retrospectively reviewed 439 consecutive cases sent to a single dermatopathology lab from a practitioner’s general dermatology office who also performs Mohs micrographic surgery. One hundred cases had a histopathologically proven carcinoma LY333531 on biopsy with subsequent

excision. Histopathologic type, location, age, sex, and time from biopsy to excision were all analyzed for statistical association. Results Of 57 cases of basal cell carcinoma, 34 (59.6%) had positive residuals. Of 43 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 12 (27.9%) had positive residuals. Histologic type was significantly associated (p=.002) with residual carcinoma in excisional specimens, with basal cells 2.13 times as likely to have residual carcinoma present. Conclusion The rate of residual nonmelanoma carcinoma in excision specimens after shave biopsy was found to be different from previously reported in the literature. These data may have therapeutic ramifications if further substantiated.”
“We have investigated the transport properties and electronic states of W-doped anatase TiO2 (Ti1-xWxO2) fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition. Based

on transport and photoemission spectroscopy GSK1838705A (PES) measurements, we discuss the conduction mechanism of Ti1-xWxO2, focusing on the valence state of W. The Ti0.95W0.05O2 film deposited under optimized conditions showed a resistivity of 2×10(-3) cm at room temperature, which is approximately ten times higher than that of Ti0.94Nb0.06O2. This is mainly due to the lower carrier density in Ti1-xWxO2 films. From PES measurements of Ti0.91W0.09O2 films, we observed the finite density of states originating from O 2p hybridized with W near the top of the valence band. However, we could not find any states at the same position in the Ti0.94Nb0.06O2 films. In addition, the density of

states selleck compound near the Fermi level [N(E-F)] was found to be quite low in the Ti0.91W0.09O2 films. Indeed, this is in sharp contrast to Ti0.94Nb0.06O2, which indicates a remarkably high N(E-F) value assigned to the bottom of the Ti 3d conduction band. The difference in transport properties between Ti1-xWxO2 and Ti1-xNbxO2 can be attributed to the existence of impurity states that trap carriers associated with doped W atoms.”
“From the 15th century to the present day, Christian art has portrayed people who suffer from epilepsy as attributes in illustrations of Saint Valentine (SV). The objective of our Study was to interpret the works of art from a modern epileptological perspective on the basis of a collection of portrayals of SV in Europe that was as comprehensive as possible. The people depicted as attributes were analyzed with respect to their age, gender, social status, and possible seizure semiology. Three hundred forty-one illustrations of SV from Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland.

The combined subtle RE sequence-specific allosteric effects propa

The combined subtle RE sequence-specific allosteric effects propagate in the p53 and in the DNA. The resulting amplified allosteric effects far away are reflected in changes in the overall p53 organization and in the p53 surface topology and residue fluctuations which play key roles in selective co-factor recruitment. As such, these observations suggest how similar p53-RE sequences can spell the preferred co-factor binding, which is the key to the selective

gene transactivation and consequently different functional effects.”
“Hybrid particles of polyurethane (PU) containing a number of small poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles inside were prepared using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer as a linker between PU and PMMA; the resulting polymers were poly (urethane-glycidyl methacrylate-methyl methacrylate) (PUGM). It was found that the average particle size (D(p)) of AZD6244 mouse the PU particles decreased by the inclusion of PMMA particles possibly owing to the low-solution viscosity of PU. However, D(p) of the PUGM hybrid particles increased with increasing the number of covalent bonds between PMMA and PU, which might be due to decreasing the amount of ionic groups per PU chain. Subsequently, the tensile properties of the films made of the PUGM hybrid particles were investigated. It was observed that the modulus of the PU films increased upon

the addition LDN-193189 inhibitor of PMMA particle because of a filler effect. In addition, it was seen that the modulus of PUGM hybrid films increased further

with increasing the number of covalent bonds. This was attributed to “”restricted mobility”" of PU chains anchored to the PMMA particles. It was also observed that the tensile strength changed only slightly for PUGM particles, suggesting that the PU matrix was probably responsible for the necking behavior of the films. The elongation of the samples was found to depend on both the presence of covalent Nutlin-3a manufacturer bonds between the PMMA particles and PU matrix and the reduced mobility of the PU chains anchored to PMMA particles. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3111-3121, 2011″
“High nicotine dependence is a reliable predictor of difficulty quitting smoking and remaining smoke-free. Evidence also suggests that the effectiveness of various smoking cessation treatments may vary by nicotine dependence level. Nicotine dependence, as assessed by Heaviness of Smoking Index baseline total scores, was evaluated as a potential moderator of a message-framing intervention provided through the New York State Smokers’ Quitline (free telephone based service). Smokers were exposed to either gain-framed (n = 810) or standard-care (n = 1222) counseling and printed materials. Those smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day and medically eligible were also offered a free 2-week supply of nicotine patches, gum, or lozenge.

The study of seemingly rare hereditary syndromes and their suscep

The study of seemingly rare hereditary syndromes and their susceptibility genes has consistently revealed clues regarding the aetiology and pathogenesis of these diseases, and can aid diagnosis and the development of therapeutics for patients affected by much more common sporadic counterparts.”
“Purpose of the review

The review is an attempt to present the current literature regarding strictures in children to provide an evidence-based CA4P cell line recommendation regarding diagnosis and treatment.

Recent findings

The level of evidence upon which to base therapy of strictures in children is low and consists mostly of case

series from single institutions. Hence most of the information is extrapolated from the adult literature. A consensus committee of the Societe Internationale d’Urologie reviewed the literature, and the committee report (which is as yet unpublished) provides the basis for most of the information herein.


Because there is relatively little information published on this subject, there is a need for prospective studies and compound screening assay multi-institutional series. Additionally, there is a need for basic studies of urethral wound healing to

provide a better understanding of the problem.”
“Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of glandular breast tissue in men. Physiologic gynecomastia is common in newborns, adolescents, and older men. It is self-limited, but can be treated to minimize emotional distress and physical discomfort. Nonphysiologic gynecomastia may be caused by chronic conditions (e.g., cirrhosis, hypogonadism, renal insufficiency); use of medications, supplements, or illicit drugs; and, rarely, tumors. Discontinuing use of contributing medications and treating underlying disease are the mainstay of treatment. Medications, such as estrogen receptor modulators, and surgery have a role in treating gynecomastia in select patients. Treatment should be pursued early and should be directed by the patient. (Am Fam Physician. 2012;85 (7):716-722. Copyright (C) 2012 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”

Longitudinal studies Ganetespib order often employ complex sample designs to optimize sample size, over-representing population groups of interest. The effect of sample design on parameter estimates is quite often ignored, particularly when fitting survival models. Another major problem in long-term cohort studies is the potential bias due to loss to follow-up.

Methods: In this paper we simulated a dataset with approximately 50,000 individuals as the target population and 15,000 participants to be followed up for 40 years, both based on real cohort studies of cardiovascular diseases. Two sample strategies – simple random (our golden standard) and Stratified by professional group, with nonproportional allocation – and two loss to follow-up scenarios – non-informative censoring and losses related to the professional group – were analyzed.

In this study, we investigate the influence of extracellular matr

In this study, we investigate the influence of extracellular matrix topography

on the coordination of multi-cellular interactions in the context of angiogenesis. To do this, we validate our spatio-temporal mathematical model of angiogenesis against empirical data, and within this framework, we vary the density of the matrix fibers to simulate different tissue environments and to explore the possibility of manipulating the extracellular matrix to achieve pro- and anti-angiogenic effects. The model predicts specific ranges of matrix fiber densities that maximize sprout extension speed, induce branching, or interrupt normal angiogenesis, which are independently confirmed by experiment. We then explore matrix fiber alignment as a key factor contributing to peak sprout velocities and in mediating cell shape and orientation.

PKC412 We also quantify the effects of proteolytic matrix degradation by the tip cell on sprout velocity and demonstrate that degradation promotes sprout growth at high matrix densities, but has an inhibitory effect at lower densities. Our results are AP26113 manufacturer discussed in the context of ECM targeted pro- and anti-angiogenic therapies that can be tested empirically.”
“Background : Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) recently has been identified as a metastasis suppressor in a variety of human carcinomas. The prognostic significance of RKIP expression in extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) carcinoma has not been studied. The aims of the current study were to evaluate RKIP expression and to determine the prognostic significance of RKIP expression in EBD carcinoma. Methods : Immunohistochemical staining for RKIP was

performed for 131 cases of EBD carcinoma. The associations of RKIP expression with clinicopathologic parameters and patient outcomes were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictive LY2157299 parameters for lymphovascular invasion and nodal and distant metastases. Results : Loss of RKIP expression was observed in 55.0% (72/131) of cases. EBD carcinoma had significantly lower RKIP immunoreactivity than normal EBD (p < 0.001). Loss of RKIP expression was significantly associated with lymphatic invasion (p = 0.030) and nodal metastasis (p = 0.036), but it was not found to be a significant prognostic predictor for overall, disease-free or distant metastasis-free survival. In addition, loss of RKIP expression was an independent predictor for lymphatic invasion (p = 0.027). Conclusions : These results suggest that RKIP may play a role in the suppression of lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis in EBD carcinoma.”
“Background and aims:

Injecting drug use (IDU) before and after liver transplantation (LT) is poorly described. The aim of this study was to quantify relapse and survival in this population and to describe the causes of mortality after LT.

Moreover, synthesis of IL-2 by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells occurred

Moreover, synthesis of IL-2 by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells occurred earlier and was stronger in C57BL/6 mice compared to BALB/c mice.

The increase in TNF-a synthesis by CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells was detected mainly in DLNs of infected animals. We did not observe any changes in the percentage of IL-4-synthesizing T cells (Th2 and Tc2) during ECTV-MOS infection in both strains of mice.

Conclusions: Results presented in this study confirmed that during the early phase of infection, C57BL/6 mice mounted a strong Th1 and Tc1 immune response against ECTV-MOS. BALB/c mice that survived the acute stage of mousepox, were able to mount an adequate cellular response to ECTV-MOS, however successful elimination of the virus in susceptible mice may selleck products occur more slowly compared to resistant strains of mice. Intracellular detection of IL-4 by flow cytometry was not sensitive enough to distinguish the differences in IL-4-synthesizing Th2 and Tc2 cells between susceptible and resistant strains of mice during ECTV-MOS infection.”
“New pathogens continue

to emerge, and the HM781-36B datasheet increased connectedness of populations across the globe through international travel and trade favors rapid dispersal of any new disease. The ability to respond to such events has increased but the question is what ‘preparedness’ means at the level of the clinician. Clinicians deal with patients with unexplained illness on a daily basis, and even with syndromes highly indicative of infectious diseases, the cause of illness is often not detected, unless extensive and costly diagnostic work-ups are done. This review discusses innovations in diagnostics and surveillance aimed at early detection of unusual disease. Risk based approaches are

promising, but optimal preparedness planning requires multidisciplinary LY2606368 supplier partnerships across domains, and a global translational research agenda to develop tools, systems, and evidence for interventions.”
“As an advanced surgical procedure, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is associated with considerable morbidity, especially in the learning curve period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of endoscopy during LRYGB surgery in assessing the gastric pouch and anastomosis for air leak, bleeding, and structure at the beginning of a bariatric surgery program. Patients who underwent LRYGB for morbid obesity between May 2008 and May 2009 were included in this study. After the completion of the anastomosis, an endoscopic examination was carried out. The transection line and anastomosis site were examined for bleeding and patency and inspected for air leak under laparoscopic vision. Thirteen morbidly obese patients (mean body mass index, 48.0 +/- 6.8 kg/m(2)) were evaluated by endoscopic examination during the LRYGB operation. None of the cases had bleeding at the transection line or anastomosis site.

“As an underlying mechanism of antenatal maternal malnutri

“As an underlying mechanism of antenatal maternal malnutrition-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), alterations in the local pancreatic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play a significant role. We tested the hypothesis that antenatal maternal protein deprivation (AMPD) leads to increased activity of the local pancreatic RAS, with see more associated hyperglycemia in the adult progeny.

Mice dams were fed either control or 50% protein restricted diet (AMPD) starting one week before conception and maintained during complete gestation. Our results demonstrate low birth weight (control 1.5 +/- 0.03 and AMPD 1.3 +/- 0.03) and sexually dimorphic programming of the pancreatic RAS, with development of hyperglycemia only in the

female mice offspring as a consequence of AMPD. No significant difference in serum insulin concentration was observed; however, AMPD was associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of angiotensinogen, renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-1 in male and female offspring. Of importance, mRNA and protein expression of ACE 2 and angiotensin II receptors was up-regulated only in the male offspring, as a consequence of AMPD. We conclude that sexually dimorphic programming of the pancreatic RAS expression is associated with AMPD diet-mediated development of hyperglycemia.”
“Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) is considered the most pathogenic virus in cetaceans. Three strains have been already described: the dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), the porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) and the tentatively named pilot whale morbillivirus (PWMV).

This study describes the molecular characterization of a strain of CeMV detected in the brain of a short-finned pilot buy Sapitinib whale that had stranded in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean around the Canary Islands and that showed lesions compatible with morbilliviral disease. Sequences for the nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, fusion protein and haemagglutinin genes were obtained. The phylogenetic study showed high homology (97%) with

the PWMV strain previously detected from a long-finned pilot whale stranded in the Western Atlantic Ocean. These results support the existing classification of CeMV into three principal genetic clusters. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A double-low-temperature-buffer variable-temperature growth scheme was studied for fabrication of strain-relaxed thin Si(0.6)Ge(0.4) layer on Si(001) by using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), with particular focuses on the influence of growth temperature of individual low-temperature-buffer layers on the relaxation process and final structural qualities. The low-temperature buffers consisted of a 40 nm Si layer grown at an optimized temperature of similar to 400 degrees C, followed by a 20 nm Si(0.6)Ge(0.4) layer grown at temperatures ranging from 50 to 550 degrees C.

Motivations for laser tattoo removal were mainly considering the

Motivations for laser tattoo removal were mainly considering the tattoo as youthful folly (29 %), esthetic reasons (28 %), and 6 % indicated medical problems. One third of participants were unsatisfied with the result of laser tattoo removal, and a complete removal of the tattoo pigment was obtained in 38 % only. Local transient side effects occurred in nearly all participants, but an important rate of slightly visible scars (24 %) or even important scarring (8 %) was reported. Every

fourth participant described mild or intense tan PF2341066 when the laser treatment was performed, and the same number of people indicated UV exposure following laser therapy, which should normally be avoided in these circumstances. As reported in the literature, nearly half of the participants experienced hypopigmentation in the treated area. Our results show that from the patients’ point of view there is an important rate of side effects occurring after laser tattoo removal. Appropriate pretreatment counseling with regard to realistic expectations, possible side effects, and the application of test spots is mandatory to ensure patient satisfaction. Laser treatment should be performed by appropriately trained personnel only.”
“Background and objective: Dendritic cell-specific intracellular

adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), encoded by the CD209 gene, is a major Mycobacterium tuberculosis receptor on human dendritic cells. The potentially functional -336A/G polymorphism in the CD209 promoter region has been associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB), but the results have been inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between the CD209-336A/G variant and the risk of TB. Methods: Ten studies involving a total of 2598 TB patients and 2614 control subjects were systematically reviewed, and the data

were quantitatively synthesized by meta-analysis. The Q-test was applied to assess the heterogeneity of associations among the studies, and Egger’s regression selleckchem test was used to assess potential publication bias. Results: No significant association was identified between the CD209-336A/G polymorphism and risk of TB (G allele vs A allele: odds ratio (OR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.901.15). Moreover, no significant association was observed in populations of African ethnicity (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.871.17) or among individuals who were negative for the human immunodeficiency virus (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.841.15). Conclusions: This meta-analysis has indicated that the CD209-336A/G polymorphism may not contribute to susceptibility to TB.”
“”"Average Bioequivalence Taking into Account the Gender of Subjects.”" Conclusions on average bioequivalence are mainly impaired because of the study variability. Very often individual characteristics play a major role in determining the size of the trial residual variance.

We sought to map susceptibility genes for LA size in a large Domi

We sought to map susceptibility genes for LA size in a large Dominican family data set and an independent population-based sample from the Northern Manhattan Study.

Methods and Results-One hundred Dominican families comprising 1350 individuals were studied to estimate heritability and map quantitative trait loci for LA Selleckchem MDV3100 size using variance components analysis. LA dimension was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. A polygenic

covariate screening was used to identify significant covariates. LA size had a moderate estimate of heritability (h(2) = 0.42) after adjusting for significant covariates. Linkage analysis revealed suggestive evidence on chromosome 10p19 (D10S1423, MLOD = 2.00) and 17p10 (D17S974, MLOD = 2.05). Ordered subset analysis found significantly enhanced (P < 0.05 for increase of LOD score) evidence for linkage at 17p10 (MLOD = 2.9) in families with lower LDL level. Single nucleotide polymophisms (n = 2233) were used to perform

a peak-wide association mapping across 17p10 in 825 NOMAS individuals. Evidence for association were found in NTN1, MYH10, COX10, and MYOCD genes (P = 0.00005 to 0.005).

Conclusions-Using nonbiased genome-wide linkage followed by peak-wide association analysis, we identified several possible susceptibility genes affecting LA size. Among them, MYOCD has been shown to serve LY2835219 nmr as a key transducer of hypertrophic signals in cardiomyocytes. Our data support that polymorphisms in MYOCD modify LA

size. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010; 3: 386-392.)”
“Introduction: Resistin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, was found to be linked to metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance over the past decade. There is growing evidence that resistin plays a potential role in endothelial dysfunction. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been concerned with the effect of resistin on endothelial function in a Tibetan population.

Aims: To investigate the correlation of resistin and endothelial function among preclinical Tibetan male young adults.

Materials and methods: All participants recruited were young adults between 30 and 40 years old of male gender in Lhasa city. All subjects were native Tibetan. A total of 90 healthy subjects were accepted after excluding hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia or coronary artery disease. The subjects were divided into three groups according to flow-mediated dilation (FMD): lower FMD (group A), intermediate FMD (group B) and higher FMD (group C). Body mass index, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and cigarette smoking were evaluated. Venous blood was sampled for the measurement of lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasma resistin quantitation. The non-invasive vascular endothelial function was evaluated through the measurement of FMD with B-mode ultrasound.

The bit aspect ratio (BAR) and magnetic spacing between the write

The bit aspect ratio (BAR) and magnetic spacing between the write head and the medium were varied and the system with the lowest write error rate was found to be a 1:1 BAR, shingled recording

system. For single-track recording a 2:1 AZD6094 order BAR and a magnetic spacing of 3.5 nm gave the lowest write-error rate. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3536666]“
“In this study, capillary extrusion experiments and rupture visualization experiments were carried out with a combined die configuration where two different dies were attached in a capillary rheometer. We observed that the gross melt fracture (GMF) and rupture of the melt occurred simultaneously when the diameter of the die located at the upstream position was larger than that of the die located downstream. However, when the location of the dies were interchanged, that is, the diameter of the upstream die was smaller than that of the downstream die, the upstream rupture did not accompany GMF up to a certain extent of shear rate. From these observations, we present a new theory on the origin of GMF. (C) 2011

Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 2812-2817, 2011″
“Background: The cholesterol-lowering effectiveness of plant sterol (PS) therapy is hindered by wide-ranging variability in LDL-cholesterol responsiveness across individuals. To capitalize on the LDL-cholesterol-lowering Navitoclax potential of PS in the clinical setting, it is paramount to characterize the metabolic factors that underlie this heterogeneity of responsiveness.

Objective: The objective was to investigate the relation between cholesterol synthesis and plasma LDL-cholesterol reductions in response to PS consumption.

Design: We evaluated previously conducted clinical PS interventions incorporating stable-isotope measures of cholesterol synthesis and conducted feeding studies in animal models of response (Syrian Golden hamsters) and nonresponse (C57BL/6J mice) to PS consumption.

Results: From our clinical study population (n = 113), we identified 47 nonresponders

(3.73 +/- 1.10% change in LDL cholesterol) and 66 responders (215.16 +/- 1.04% change in LDL cholesterol) to PS therapy. The basal cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR) as measured by direct deuterium incorporation was 23% higher (P = 0.003) in the nonresponder subgroup than in responders to PS therapy. The basal cholesterol FSR correlated (r = 0.22, P = 0.02) with the percentage change in LDL cholesterol after PS intervention. In support of our clinical observations, nonresponding mice showed a 77% higher (P = 0.001) basal cholesterol FSR than that of responding hamsters. Compared with control mice, PS-fed mice showed an increase in hepatic nuclear sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 abundance (1.3-fold of control, P = 0.04) and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-mRNA expression (2.

The results of this study show that the probability of any health

The results of this study show that the probability of any health care utilization, both outpatient care and inpatient care, is higher for the people who have PHI. For those who utilize health care, PHI has a positive impact on outpatient expenditure, but not on the number of outpatient visits. The effect of PHI on the number of inpatient days and expenditure is not statistically significant among the users of inpatient care. These results imply a need for policy options to mitigate the moral hazard effect of PHI in the outpatient care sector. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

4a-dicarbonitriles were synthesized by reaction of 2-amino-4-arylbuta-1,3-diene-1,1,3-tricarbonitriles

(arylmethylidene PLX4032 derivatives of malononitrile dimer) with bromomalononitrile.”
“Background: Trials of iron chelator regimens have increased the treatment options for cardiac siderosis in beta-thalassemia major (TM) patients. Treatment effects with improved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) have been observed in patients without overt heart failure, but it is unclear whether these changes are clinically meaningful.

Methods: This retrospective study of a UK database of TM patients modelled the change in EF between serial scans measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to the relative risk (RR) of future development of heart failure over 1 year. Patients were divided into 2 strata by baseline LVEF of 56-62% (below normal for TM) and 63-70% (lower half of the normal range for TM).

Results: A total of 315 patients with 754 CMR scans were analyzed. selleck chemicals A 1% absolute increase in EF from baseline was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of future

development of heart failure for both the lower EF stratum (EF 56-62%, RR 0.818, p < 0.001) and the higher EF stratum (EF 63-70%, RR 0.893 p = 0.001).

Conclusion: These data show that during treatment with iron chelators for cardiac siderosis, small increases in LVEF in TM patients are associated with a significantly reduced risk of the development of heart failure. Thus the iron chelator induced improvements in LVEF of 2.6% to 3.1% that have been observed in randomized controlled trials, are associated with risk reductions of 25.5% to 46.4% for the development of heart failure over 12 months, which is clinically meaningful. In cardiac iron overload, heart mitochondrial dysfunction and its relief by iron chelation may underlie the changes in LV function.”
“Background-Provider and public health interventions in the late 2006 sought to change the duration of clopidogrel use after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. We evaluated whether public health interventions were associated with changes in patient-reported clopidogrel use among DES patients.