The co-existence of metal residues in SWCNTs can aggravate the ad

The co-existence of metal residues in SWCNTs can aggravate the adverse VE-821 effects.”
“PurposeTo develop significance testing methodology applicable to spatially heterogeneous parametric maps of biophysical and physiological measurements arising from imaging studies.\n\nTheoryHeterogeneity can confound statistical analyses. Indexed distribution analysis (IDA) transforms a reference distribution, establishing correspondences across parameter maps to which significance tests

are applied.\n\nMethodsWell-controlled simulated and clinical K-trans data from a dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging study of bevacizumab were analyzed using conventional significance tests of parameter averages, histogram analysis, and IDA. Repeated pretreatment scans provided negative control; a post treatment scan provided positive control.\n\nResultsHistogram analysis was insensitive to PD173074 simulated and known effects. Simulation: conventional analysis identified treatment effect

(P approximate to 5 x 10(-4)) and direction, but underestimated magnitude (relative error 67-81%); IDA identified treatment effect (P = 0.001), magnitude, direction, and spatial extent (100% accuracy). Bevacizumab: conventional analysis was sensitive to treatment effect (P = 0.01; 95% confidence interval on K-trans decrease: 23-37%); IDA was sensitive to treatment effect (P < 0.05; K-trans decrease approximately 25%), inferred its spatial extent to be 94-96%, and inferred that K-trans decrease is independent of baseline value, an inference that conventional and histogram analyses cannot make.\n\nConclusionsIn the presence of heterogeneity, IDA can accurately infer the magnitude, direction, and spatial extent of between samples of parametric maps, which can be visualized spatially with respect to the original parameter maps. Magn Reson Med 71:1299-1311, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Bones are continuously undergoing remodeling Prexasertib manufacturer as a result of the coordinated actions of bone cells. This process occurs in discrete regions or basic

multicellular units (BMUs) and ensures the maintenance of skeletal integrity and bone mass. The rate of bone remodelling can be monitored quantitatively by measuring biochemical markers of bone turnover. Bone formation markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, type I collagen extension propeptides) reflect osteoblast activity and bone resorption markers (pyridinium crosslinks, N-terminal type I collagen C-crosslinking telopeptides, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5-b, hydroxyproline and urinary calcium) reflect osteoclast activity. Bone markers are useful to detect changes in bone turnover. As bone resorption is faster than bone formation, the increase in bone turnover markers can be regarded as a risk factor for rapid bone loss.

“OBJECTIVE: We investigated issues affecting Papanicolaou

“OBJECTIVE: We investigated issues affecting Papanicolaou smear screening access, health services

utilization, acculturation, social networking, and media venues most conducive to acquiring health information among Hispanics.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: Self-identified Hispanics were surveyed. EGFR inhibitor Participants were stratified based on age, time living in the United States, and Papanicolaou screening frequency.\n\nRESULTS: Of 318 participants, Hispanics aged 30 years or older and living in the United States less than 5 years prefer speaking Spanish. Women with 5 or more lifetime Papanicolaou smears were 1.610 times more likely to have lived in the United States 5 or more years, 1.706 times more likely to speak a second language, and 1.712 times less likely to need a translator during their health care encounter.\n\nCONCLUSION: Age and years living in the United States may be independent risk factors for participation in Papanicolaou screening programs. Social difficulties inherent to acculturation inform health behavior and translate to health disparity among Hispanics. Our results may help design federally funded and community-level programs.”
“Background: Male Circumcision (MC) has been recommended

as one of the preventive measures against sexual HIV transmission by the World Health Organization (WHO). Rwanda has adopted check details MC as recommended but the country is a non-traditionally circumcising society. The objective was to explore knowledge and perception BIBF 1120 of Rwandan men on Male Circumcision (MC) and to determine the factors associated with the willingness to be

circumcised and to circumcise their sons.\n\nMethods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 29 districts of Rwanda between January and March 2010. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire among men aged 15-59 years. The rate of MC was measured and its perception from respondents, and then the factors associated with the willingness to go for MC were analysed using multiple logistic regressions.\n\nResults: A total of 1098 men were interviewed. Among respondents 17% (95% CI 14-19%) reported being circumcised. About three-quarter (72%) could define MC, but 37% of adolescent could not. Half of the participants were willing to get circumcised and 79% of men would accept circumcision for their sons. The main motivators for MC were its benefits in HIV/STI prevention (69%) and improving hygiene (49%). Being too old was the main reason (32%) reported by men reluctant to undergo MC and younger men were afraid of pain in particular those less than 19 years old (42%). The willingness to circumcise was significantly associated with younger age, living in the Eastern Province, marital status, and the knowledge of the preventive role of circumcision.\n\nConclusions: Adolescents and young adults were more willing to be circumcised.

Purpose: To compare the biological properties and tissue rege

\n\nPurpose: To compare the biological properties and tissue regeneration capabilities of juvenile and adult bovine articular cartilage.\n\nStudy Design: Controlled

laboratory study.\n\nMethods: Articular cartilage harvested from juvenile (age, 4 months) and adult (age, 6-8 years) bovine femoral condyles was cultured for 4 weeks to monitor chondrocyte migration, glycosaminoglycan content conservation, and new tissue formation. The cartilage cell density and proliferative activity were also compared. Additionally, the effects of age-related changes on cartilage gene expression were analyzed using the Affymetrix GeneChip array.\n\nResults: Compared with adult cartilage, juvenile bovine cartilage demonstrated a significantly greater cell density, higher cell proliferation rate,

increased cell outgrowth, elevated glycosaminoglycan content, and enhanced matrix metallopeptidase 2 activity. During 4 weeks in culture, only juvenile cartilage was able to generate new cartilaginous tissues, which exhibited pronounced labeling for proteoglycan and type II collagen but not type I collagen. With over 19,000 genes analyzed, distinctive gene expression profiles were identified. The genes mostly involved in cartilage growth and expansion, such as COL2A1, COL9A1, MMP2, MMP14, and TGFB3, were upregulated in juvenile cartilage, whereas the genes primarily responsible for structural integrity, such as COMP, FN1, TIMP2, TIMP3, and BMP2, were this website upregulated in adult cartilage.\n\nConclusion: As the first comprehensive comparison between juvenile and adult bovine articular cartilage at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels, the results strongly suggest that juvenile cartilage possesses superior chondrogenic activity and enhanced regenerative potential over its adult counterpart. Additionally, the differential gene expression profiles of juvenile and adult cartilage suggest possible Lonafarnib in vitro mechanisms underlying cartilage age-related changes in their regeneration capabilities, structural components, and biological properties.\n\nClinical Relevance: The results of this comparative

study between juvenile and adult bovine articular cartilage suggest an enhanced regenerative potential of juvenile cartilage tissue in the restoration of damaged articular cartilage.”
“P> Succession theory focuses on the position of species along the shade tolerance gradient and their ability to colonize recently disturbed patches and has for decades overlooked resprouting as a key trait in community patterns.\n\nWe study how different species traits interact with disturbance frequency to change species dominance in the canopy, focusing on the effects of resprouting ability.\n\nWe develop an individual-based model that simulates the dynamics of three species paper birch Betula papyrifera Marsh, white pine Pinus strobus L. and sugar maple Acer saccharum Marsh.

An important new

An important new Selleckchem GDC0068 observation is the reactivity of MORN1 antibody with certain sexual stages in T. gondii and Eimeria species. Here MORN1 is organized as a ring-like structure where the microgametes bud from the microgametocyte while in mature microgametes it is present near the flagellar basal bodies and mitochondrion. These observations suggest

a conserved role for MORN1 in both asexual and sexual development across the Apicomplexa.”
“In muscle responses of proprioceptive origin, including the stretch/tendon reflex (T-reflex), the corresponding reciprocal excitation and irradiation to distant muscles have been described from newborn infants to older adults. However, the functioning of other responses mediated primarily AG-014699 concentration by Ia-afferents has not been investigated in infants. Understanding the typical development of these multiple pathways is critical to determining potential problems in their development in populations affected by neurological disease, such as spina bifida or

cerebral palsy. Hence, the goal of the present study was to quantify the excitability of Ia-mediated responses in lower limb muscles of infants with typical development. These responses were elicited by mechanical stimulation applied to the distal tendons of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (QAD) muscles of both legs in twelve 2- to 10-month-old infants and recorded simultaneously in antagonist muscle pairs by surface EMG. Tendon taps alone elicited responses in either, both or neither muscle. The homonymous response (T-reflex) was less frequent in the TA than the GS or QAD muscle. An 80 Hz vibration superimposed on tendon taps induced primarily an inhibition of monosynaptic responses; however, facilitation also occurred in either muscle of the recorded pair. These responses were not influenced significantly by age or gender. Vibration alone produced Metabolism inhibitor a tonic reflex response in the vibrated muscle (TVR) and/or the antagonist muscle (AVR). However, for the TA muscle the TVR was more frequently

elicited in older than younger infants. High variability was common to all responses. Overall, the random distribution and inconsistency of muscle responses suggests that the gain of Ia-mediated feedback is unstable. We propose that during infancy the central nervous system needs to learn to set stable feedback gain, or destination of proprioceptive assistance, based on their use during functional movements. This will tailor the neuromuscular connectivity to support adaptive motor behaviors.”
“Effective Schwann cells (SCs) attachment is a prerequisite for the successful construction of tissue-engineered nerve. The present study aimed to investigate the role of an avidin-biotin binding system (ABBS) for neural tissue engineering.

The posterior probability

that the closed-loop anesthetic

The posterior probability

that the closed-loop anesthetic delivery Selonsertib manufacturer system was reliable across all levels was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.77-1.00; n = 18) and that the system was accurate across all levels was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.84-1.00; n = 18).\n\nConclusion: The findings of this study establish the feasibility of using a closed-loop anesthetic delivery systems to achieve in real time reliable and accurate control of burst suppression in rodents and suggest a paradigm to precisely control medically induced coma in patients.”
“Satellite cells are quiescent cells located under the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers that contribute to muscle growth, maintenance, repair, and regeneration. Mouse satellite cells have been shown to be muscle stem cells that are able to regenerate muscle fibers and self-renew. As human skeletal muscle is also able to regenerate following injury, we assume that the human satellite cell is, like its murine equivalent, a muscle stem cell. In this review, we compare human and mouse satellite cells and highlight their similarities and differences. We discuss gaps in our knowledge of human satellite cells, compared with that of mouse satellite cells, and suggest ways in which we may advance studies on human satellite cells, particularly S63845 molecular weight by finding

new markers and attempting to re-create the human satellite cell niche in vitro. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:941-955, 2010)”
“When Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 (BTV-8) was first detected in Northern Europe in 2006, several guidelines were immediately put into place with the goal to protect farms and stop the spreading of the disease. This however did not prevent further rapid spread of BTV-8 across Northern Europe. Using information on the 2006 Bluetongue outbreak in cattle farms in Belgium, a spatio-temporal transmission model was formulated. The model quantifies the local transmission of the disease between farms within a municipality, selleck the short-distance transmission between farms across neighbouring municipalities and the transmission as a result of cattle movement. Different municipality-level

covariates such as farm density, land composition variables, temperature and precipitation, were assessed as possibly influencing each component of the transmission process. Results showed a significant influence of the different covariates in each model component, particularly the significant effect of temperature and precipitation values in the number of infected farms. The model which allowed us to predict the dynamic spreading of BTV for different movement restriction scenarios, also affirmed the significant impact of cattle movement in the 2006 BTV outbreak pattern. Simulation results further showed the importance of considering the size of restriction zones in the formulation of guidelines for animal infectious diseases.

Pathologic specimens

were retrospectively reviewed by a s

Pathologic specimens

were retrospectively reviewed by a single genitourinary pathologist unaware of treatment outcome to determine the greatest dimension of metastasis in all affected LN. The median follow-up of survivors was 23 months.\n\nRESULTS The median YH25448 OS was 17 months; median LN density, 17%; and median number of LN removed, 14. ALNMD was a significant predictor of RFS and OS after adjusting for pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, LN density, comorbidity, and extranodal extension (adjusted HR 1.1; P = .02), even when restricting the analysis to patients in whom 10 or more LN have been removed. The predictive accuracy of a model for OS that contained ALNMD was superior to the one without this parameter and the TNM-staging system (c-index 0.71 vs 0.67 vs 0.62).\n\nCONCLUSIONS ALNMD is a significant predictor of RFS and OS after adjusting for standard prognostic parameters among patients with LN-positive UCB and may be a useful parameter

to include in future predictive nomograms and TNM-staging systems. UROLOGY 75: 382-386, 2010. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc.”
“A variety of metals have been widely used in construction of cardiovascular implants (CVIs), such as artificial heart valves, ventricular pumps, and vascular stents. Although great 3-deazaneplanocin A Epigenetics inhibitor effects have been put into rigorous anticoagulation, late thrombosis still occurred due to inferior blood and cell

compatibility. Natural endothelium is popularly regarded as the only substance that has long-term anticoagulant ability. So, establishment of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library a compact endothelial cell (EC) monolayer on CVIs surface is a guarantee for their long-term potency. In the work described here, titanium (Ti) disks were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) directly secreted by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), so as to help ECs proliferate and migrate and to improve their endothelialization in vivo. Deposition of ECM on Ti disks was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The surface topography and wettability of the Ti disks significantly changed after ECM deposition. Most importantly, it was found that ECM deposition inhibited platelet adhesion, stimulated EC proliferation, increased EC migration speed in vitro, and eventually accelerated the re-cellularization speed of Ti disks in vivo. These important results render it reasonable and feasible to modify CVIs with ECM secreted from ECs for improving their long-term potency.”
“Objective: The ability to see things from another’s perspective, that is, have a theory of mind (ToM), is essential to effective communication. So too is the ability to regulate verbal output, that is, to exercise executive control.

Whilst the genetic gains compared to the recurrent parent were im

Whilst the genetic gains compared to the recurrent parent were impressive, quality of the derived lines were largely equivalent to the levels now available in the recently released varieties, Buloke and Flagship. In a few cases, the backcross-derived lines

also showed similarities to the original donors, Harrington and Morex, but in none of the cases did quality of these lines selleck compound exceed those of either Harrington or Morex.”
“There is a growing consensus that the various forms of cell death ( necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy) are not separated by strict boundaries, but rather share molecular effectors and signaling routes. Among the latter, a clear role is played by calcium (Ca2+), the ubiquitous second messenger involved in the control of a broad variety of physiological events. Fine tuning of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis by anti- and proapoptotic proteins shapes the Ca2+ signal to which mitochondria and other cellular effectors are BMS-777607 cost exposed, and hence the efficiency of various cell death inducers. Here, we will review: (i) the evidence linking calcium

homeostasis to the regulation of apoptotic, and more recently autophagic cell death, (ii) the discussion of mitochondria as a critical, although not unique checkpoint and (iii) the molecular and functional elucidation of ER/mitochondria contacts, corresponding to the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) subfraction and proposed to be a specialized signaling microdomain.”
“The iridium-catalyzed allylation of sodium sulfinate to form branched allylic sulfones is reported. The reactions between various sodium sulfinates and achiral allylic carbonates occur in good yields, with high selectivity for the branched Selleck MI-503 isomer, and high enantioselectivities (up to

98% ee).”
“BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) given in combination with a nucleos(t)ide analogue has reduced the rate of recurrent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection following liver transplantation (LT); however, the most effective protocol remains unclear.\n\nOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in combination with one year of low-dose HBIG.\n\nMETHODS: Twenty-four adults who underwent LT for HBV-related liver disease at the University Health Network (Toronto, Ontario) and received TDF (+/- lamivudine) and one year of HBIG to prevent recurrent HBV infection from June 2005 to June 2011 were evaluated.\n\nRESULTS: The median length of follow-up post-LT was 29.1 months. Three patients died during the follow-up period. Patient survival was 100% and 84.1% at one and five years, respectively. None of the patients developed recurrent HBV infection. No significant adverse event was observed due to TDF administration; renal function pre- and post-LT were also acceptably preserved.

The extracted proteins were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/M

The extracted proteins were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. A total of 127 proteins were identified, 34 of which have not been previously detected in proteomic studies of bile. Among them, several proteins have been described as potential biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. We extended our investigation by studying the expression of some of these pancreatic cancer markers in bile samples collected from patients with various etiologies of biliary stenosis including

pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, chronic pancreatitis, as well as gallstone-induced stenosis. Our data showed a conspicuous overexpression of CEACAM6 and MUC1 (CA19-9) in pancreatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma samples, according to the hypothesis that selleck chemicals llc bile fluid collects cancer-associated protein leaking from the tumor Selleckchem Caspase inhibitor microenvironment. These results underline the interest of using bile as a source of biomarkers for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stenosis.”
“The genetic

transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens results from the transfer of DNA and proteins via a specific virulence (vir)-induced type IV secretion system (T4SS). To better understand T4SS function, we analyzed the localization of its structural components and substrates by deconvolution fluorescence microscopy. GFP fusions to T4SS proteins with cytoplasmic tails, VirB8 and VirD4, or cytoplasmic T4SS substrate proteins, VirD2, VirE2, and VirF, localize in a helical pattern of fluorescent foci around the perimeter of the bacterial cell. All fusion proteins were expressed at native levels of vir induction. Importantly, most fusion proteins are functional and do not exhibit dominant-negative effects on DNA transfer to plant cells. Further, GFP-VirB8 complements a virB8 deletion strain. We also detect native VirB8 localization as a helical array

of foci by immunofluorescence-microscopy. T4SS foci likely use an existing helical scaffold during their assembly. Indeed, the bacterial cytoskeletal component MinD colocalizes with GFP-VirB8. Helical arrays of foci are found at all times investigated BX-795 between 12 and 48 h post vir induction at 19 degrees C. These data lead to a model with multiple T4SSs around the bacterial cell that likely facilitate host cell attachment and DNA transfer. In support, we find multiple T pili around vir-induced bacterial cells.”
“North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NAIC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, progressive cholestatic disease of infancy affecting the Cree-Ojibway first Nations of Quebec. All NAIC patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (R565W) in CIRH1A, the human homolog of the yeast nucleolar protein Utp4. Utp4 is part of the t-Utp subcomplex of the small subunit (SSU) processome, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for ribosomal RNA processing and small subunit assembly.

Results from this study need to be replicated in an appropria

\n\nResults from this study need to be replicated in an appropriate animal model

Fedratinib inhibitor before testing this adenoviral vector in a human trial.\n\nEffective targeting of gene therapy to leiomyoma cells enhances its potential as a non-invasive treatment of uterine fibroids.\n\nThis work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health [R01 HD046228]. None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.”
“The present study reports the characterization of forced degradation products of bosentan and a validated stability-indicating HPLC method for the stability testing of bosentan tablets. The

forced degradation was carried out under the conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat and photolysis. The drug was found unstable in acid, alkali and oxidative media whereas stable to the hydrolysis in water, to dry heat and to photolysis. In total, six degradation products were formed in all conditions which were resolved Selleck SB203580 in a single run on a C-18 column with gradient elution using ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5, 5.0 mM), methanol and acetonitrile. Structures of all the degradation products were characterized through +ESI-MSn and LC-ESI-MS spectral data of bosentan as well as LC-ESI-MS spectral data of the products. The products II-VI were characterized as 6-amino-[2,2']bipyrimidinyl-4,5-diol, 6-amino-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']-bipyrimidinyl-4-ol, Selleck Baf-A1 2-[6-amino-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']-bipyrimidinyl-4-yloxyl-ethanol, 4-tert-butyl-N-[6-(1-methoxyethoxy)-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']-bipyrimidinyl-4-yl]-benzenesulfonamide and 4-tert-butyl-N-[6-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']bipyrimidinyl-4-yl]-benzenesulfonamide,

respectively. The peak of the product I was found to be due to two secondary degradation products which co-eluted and were characterized as beta-hydroxyethyl p-tert-butylphenylsulfonate (Ia) and 2[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-phenoxy]-ethanol (Ib). These products were formed due to hydrolysis of sulfonamide and alkylaryl ether and the diaryl ether linkages as well as dehydration of the primary alcohol group. The most probable degradation mechanisms were proposed. The HPLC method was found to be stability-indicating, linear (2-100 mu g ml(-1)), accurate, precise, sensitive, specific, rugged and robust for quantitation of the drug. The method was applied to the stability testing of the commercially available bosentan tablets successfully. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aim To determine whether expression of a cyanobacterial flavodoxin in soil bacteria of agronomic interest confers protection against the widely used herbicides paraquat and atrazine.

94 nl/mL and 0 71 nl/mL, respectively In the case of industrial

94 nl/mL and 0.71 nl/mL, respectively. In the case of industrial substrate soya medium the yield of wet biomass, spore count and lethal concentration of VCRC B17 obtained by acid precipitation and alginate immobilization method were 311 and 360 g/L, 1.40 x 10(14) and 2.07 x 10(15) CFU/mL and 1.22 and 0.95 nl/mL, respectively. Protease activity measured after acid precipitation and alginate immobilization method was 10.8 and 103.67 U/mL, respectively. The international toxic units (ITU) of the VCRC B-17 by acid precipitation and alginate immobilization method were 13,636 and 13,888 ITU/mg, respectively.

Thus the alginate immobilization method has potential application in the harvesting and formulation of biopesticides. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In primary Crohn’s disease (CD), laparoscopic ileocolic resection Selleck VE821 has been shown to be both feasible and safe, and is associated with improved outcomes in terms of postoperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. At this time, it is unclear whether the laparoscopic approach can be routinely proposed as a safe procedure for patients

with complex CD involving PD173074 supplier localized abscess, fistula or recurrent disease. The aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for complex or recurrent CD. In the current literature, there are nine non-randomized cohort studies, two of which were case-matched. The mean rate of conversion to open laparotomy reported in these series ranged from 7% to 42%. Morbidity rate and hospital

stay following laparoscopic resection for complex CD were similar to those for initial resection or for non-complex CD. In summary, even though strong evidence is lacking and more contributions with larger size are needed, the limited experiences available from the literature confirm that the laparoscopic approach for complex CD is both feasible and safe in the hands of experienced IBD surgeons with extensive expertise in laparoscopic surgery. Further studies are required to confirm these results and determine precisely patient selection criteria. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Type-2 isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2) is a key flavoprotein involved in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. Since fully reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) is needed for activity, it was decided to crystallize the enzyme under anaerobic conditions in order to understand how this reduced cofactor binds within the active site and interacts with the substrate isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). In this study, the protein was expressed and purified under aerobic conditions and then reduced and crystallized under anaerobic conditions. Crystals grown by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and then soaked with IPP diffracted to 2.1 angstrom resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6(3)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.3, c = 172.9 angstrom.