The prevalence of other alarm symptoms were as follows: 52 cases

The prevalence of other alarm symptoms were as follows: 52 cases of indigestion lasting longer than 3 weeks or have not been relieved by over-the-counter medicines; 21 cases of blood in stools or diarrhoea lasting longer than 3 weeks; 19 cases of haematuria, 12 cases of unintentional weight loss; 11 cases of dysphagia; 13 cases of rectal bleeding; 8 cases of breast lumps; and 9 cases of haemoptysis. Patients with white British ethnic

origin were most likely to present. Over 60% of patients presenting were female and the most common age range was 55 to 64 years. Our results show that patients with alarm symptoms do present at the community pharmacy looking for healthcare advice click here and/or something to manage their symptoms. The most common alarm symptom was a cough lasting longer than 3 weeks; this can be associated Fluorouracil with lung cancer.[1] Indeed, as lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the UK, it is imperative to detect this it as soon as possible in order to improve treatment outcomes and patient survival. This has also been recently publicized by the recent national public health campaign Be Clear on Cancer,[2] urging anyone with a cough lasting for 3 or more weeks to visit their GP for further tests. There is, therefore, potential to develop an intervention to promote early cancer detection

– with a possible focus on lung cancer – in the community pharmacy. 1. Early detection of lung cancer. A guide to delivering brief interventions. Available at: [accessed 13.04.14] 2. Be Clear on Cancer: lung cancer campaign. Available at: [accessed 13.04.14] H. Kinseya, S. Scahillb, L. Byec, J. Harrisonc aUniversity of Nottingham, Nottingham,

UK, bMassey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, cUniversity of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand The new pharmacy contract in New Zealand aims to provide a more patient-centred model of care. Pharmacists supported the concept of a more patient-centred agreement. Pharmacists reported difficulties understanding the contract and concerns regarding an increase in their workload. A new community pharmacy contract known as the Community Pharmacy Services Agreement Pyruvate dehydrogenase (CPSA) was introduced in New Zealand (NZ) in July 2012. The agreement introduces a mixed fee-for-service and capitation payment funding model covering three areas of pharmacy services: a Core Service, a Long-Term Conditions Service (LTC) and Specific Services. This study aims to explore the views of community pharmacists in NZ to the CPSA 18 months after its implementation. This qualitative study used a semi-structured interview comprised of twelve topics for discussion. A purposive sampling approach drew participants from a matrix designed to ensure a maximum variation sample.

100 We

suggest for patients with non-cirrhotic disease t

100. We

suggest for patients with non-cirrhotic disease there is the option to defer treatment until newer therapies or a suitable trial become available. 101. We recommend those deferring treatment are monitored by non-invasive tests at least annually and if they have confirmed progression of fibrosis are reconsidered for initiation of therapy. 8.8.3 Auditable outcomes see Section 8.9.2 8.9 Antiviral treatment: other genotypes 8.9.1 Good practice points 102. We suggest for patients with genotype 4 infection without cirrhosis, there is the option to defer treatment until newer therapies or a suitable clinical trial become available. 103. We recommend if treatment is given now, this should be with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The duration of therapy RG-7388 should be 48 weeks if RVR is achieved. If the RNA is still detectable at 12 weeks, consideration should be given to discontinuing treatment. 104. For those with previous

treatment failure, we VX-770 cell line recommend waiting for the availability of interferon-sparing regimens with active DAAs. 105. We recommend individuals coinfected with non-genotype 1–4 should be seen at a tertiary referral centre to determine treatment suitability, nature and duration and a treatment plan made in consultation with the referring hospital. 8.9.2 Auditable outcomes Proportion of patients treated outside of clinical trials for non-genotype 1 who receive therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin Proportion of patients treated for non-genotype 1 with a Metavir score of F4 who are offered treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin unless contraindicated Proportion of patients with non-genotype 1-4 referred

to a tertiary centre Proportion of patients not receiving therapy undergoing repeat non-invasive staging of their liver disease within 1 year 8.10 Acute hepatitis C 8.10.1 Recommendations 106. We recommend patients without a decrease of 2 log10 in HCV RNA at week 4 post diagnosis of acute infection (1D) or with a positive HCV RNA week 12 post diagnosis of acute infection (1C) are offered therapy. 107. We recommend therapy be commenced prior to an estimated duration of infection of 24 weeks (1D). Patients who have not commenced treatment by this time should Fenbendazole be managed as for chronic hepatitis C. 108. We recommend all patients be offered combination therapy with pegylated interferon and weight-based ribavirin (1C). We recommend against treatment with PEG-IFN monotherapy (1C). 109. We recommend treatment is discontinued if patients do not achieve an EVR (1C). 110. We recommend patients with re-emergent virus after spontaneous or therapeutic clearance are assessed for relapse or reinfection (1C). 111. We recommend patients with AHC who relapse are managed as for chronic hepatitis C (1D). 112. We recommend patients who have been re-infected are managed as for AHC (1D). 8.10.

Amygdala lesions impaired the acquisition of CRs, which did not r

Amygdala lesions impaired the acquisition of CRs, which did not reach the level of sham-operated mice, even after prolonged training sessions. MSC injections into the lateral amygdala severely impaired CRs, which began to recover after the removal of MSC. RN inactivation with MSC completely abolished CRs, and removal of MSC immediately restored CRs to the level of control mice. The results indicate that: (i) the DCN are important,

R788 mouse but not essential, at least for the late acquisition in mouse eyeblink conditioning; (ii) the amygdala plays an important role in the acquisition and expression of CRs; and (iii) the RN is essential for the expression of CRs. Our findings reveal the various brain areas critically involved in mouse eyeblink conditioning, which include the cerebellum, amygdala and RN. “
“Forward locomotion has been extensively studied in different vertebrate animals, and the principal role of spinal mechanisms in the generation of this form of locomotion has been demonstrated. Vertebrate animals, however, are capable of other forms of locomotion, such as backward walking and swimming, sideward walking, and crawling. Do the spinal mechanisms play a principal role in the generation of these forms of locomotion? We addressed this question in lampreys, which are capable of five different forms of locomotion – fast click here forward swimming, slow forward swimming, backward

swimming, forward crawling, and backward crawling. To induce locomotion in lampreys spinalised at the second gill level, we used either electrical stimulation of the spinal cord at different rostrocaudal levels, or tactile stimulation of specific cutaneous receptive fields from which a given form of locomotion could be evoked in intact lampreys. We found that any of the five forms of locomotion could be evoked in the spinal

lamprey by electrical stimulation of the spinal cord, and some of them by tactile stimulation. These results suggest that spinal mechanisms in the lamprey, in the absence of phasic supraspinal commands, Methane monooxygenase are capable of generating the basic pattern for all five forms of locomotion observed in intact lampreys. In spinal lampreys, the direction of swimming did not depend on the site of spinal cord stimulation, but on the stimulation strength. The direction of crawling strongly depended on the body configuration. The spinal structures presumably activated by spinal cord stimulation and causing different forms of locomotion are discussed. “
“Spatial attention mediates the selection of information from different parts of space. When a brief cue is presented shortly before a target [cue to target onset asynchrony (CTOA)] in the same location, behavioral responses are facilitated, a process called attention capture. At longer CTOAs, responses to targets presented in the same location are inhibited; this is called inhibition of return (IOR).

His HbA1c was elevated at 104% (90mmol/mol) He was discharged w

His HbA1c was elevated at 10.4% (90mmol/mol). He was discharged without cause found. A month later he was readmitted with breathlessness. He was severely anaemic with an Hb of 7.8g/dl, and was referred for gastroscopy.

This demonstrated hyperplastic gastritis of the stomach, with altered blood present. Duodenal biopsies were taken and showed subtotal villous atrophy with a patchy increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes and crypt hyperplasia. The findings were consistent with coeliac disease. The patient was referred to a dietitian for advice on a gluten-free diet. His haemoglobin normalised and a DEXA scan excluded osteoporosis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons. “
“Maintaining optimal glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes is challenging. Attending a weekend music festival encompasses lifestyle activities that increase the Palbociclib in vitro challenge. These include: increased exercise, and changes in eating and alcohol consumption. The practicalities Romidepsin manufacturer of blood glucose monitoring and insulin injections are also a consideration. The aim of this project was to identify realistic problems for people with type 1 diabetes attending a music festival, and to review current written advice and available literature in order to provide relevant information.

No literature was identified. Fifty people with type 1 diabetes aged 18–40 years were randomly selected and sent a questionnaire

enquiring about experiences. Thirteen responded (26%). The mean duration of diabetes was 11.7 years (range 1.5–28 years). All 13 respondents had attended a music festival; of these, 46% had attended one for the first time. Some of the concerns included: hypoglycaemia (31%), lack of food (23%), losing insulin and equipment (23%), and maintaining blood glucose levels (23%). Anxieties regarding hypoglycaemia resulted in 38% running blood glucose levels higher than normal. Thirty-eight percent experienced hypoglycaemia, the reasons being: increased activity (38%), eating less carbohydrate (8%), and reduced blood glucose testing (8%). Twenty-three percent attended the first aid tent: Methisazone 15% regarding injections and 8% for non-diabetic reasons. An information leaflet regarding managing diabetes when attending a festival has been designed which includes feedback and tips from patients. The leaflet was evaluated by 50 people with type 1 diabetes, and 20 health care professionals. Currently, negotiations are underway with Diabetes UK, T in the Park festival organisers and the St Andrew’s Ambulance Service to have an advice stand at the festival. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. “
“Ketoacidosis in individuals with diabetes is usually associated with a raised plasma glucose concentration. However, ketoacidosis in diabetes can occur with normal (≤11mmol/L) plasma glucose levels.

The main side effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors appears to be an increa

The main side effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors appears to be an increase in genital infections, although concerns remain about the potential adverse effects of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Dapagliflozin is the SGLT-2 inhibitor that is the AZD6738 furthest along in development, and is currently in phase III clinical trials. In this review article we consider the role of the kidney in glucose homeostasis

in normal and diabetic subjects. We also review the history and concept of SGLT-2 inhibition, and discuss the future potential clinical utility of this promising new class of drugs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. “
“Malta is a small Mediterranean island with particularly distinct population and culture. It also has one of the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. As a result it provides a unique microcosm of problems in diabetes care common across Europe. This study explores the effects of culture, religion and government organisation on the management of patients with diabetes. The cultures of patients, health care professionals and the Maltese government were examined in terms of their influence on the potential to deliver culturally relevant competent care. The results of this research indicate that national culture and local practices may have a detrimental influence on the management of diabetes in Malta. The findings

highlight the need for change if effective diabetes care is to be offered to the Maltese population.

These changes are related to a highly buy Selumetinib complex, poorly understood health care system, and to the way in which it is structured and the way health care processes are managed in this highly specific national and ethnic culture. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons. The number of people living Tacrolimus (FK506) with diabetes is increasing exponentially worldwide1 and Malta, a small island in the Mediterranean with a population of 400 000 inhabitants, is no exception. Currently, 10% of the Maltese population is living with diabetes, compared with 2–5% of its European neighbours.2 The increase in prevalence may be due to a combination of factors including changes in lifestyle, aging populations and genetic factors.3 Nevertheless, the increasing number of people living with diabetes is affecting the diabetes services, putting it under considerable strain and prompting the need for a major reorganisation of services.4 There is only one public hospital in Malta which serves the whole island. It is estimated that an average of 1100 patients living with diabetes visit the Diabetes Out-Patients’ Clinic at Mater Dei Hospital and to date the waiting time for a new case to be seen by a consultant inside this clinic is approximately 12 months.5 Health care in Malta is provided both publically and privately,6 and patients have the right to choose their preferred service.

By parametrically varying SNRs, we found that children benefited

By parametrically varying SNRs, we found that children benefited significantly less from observing visual articulations, displaying considerably less audiovisual enhancement. The findings suggest that improvement in the ability to recognize speech-in-noise and in audiovisual integration during speech perception

continues quite late into the childhood years. The implication is that a considerable amount of multisensory learning remains to be achieved during the later schooling years, and that explicit efforts to accommodate this learning may well be warranted. “
“Mechanisms of place cell replay occurring during sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs) remain obscure due to the fact that ripples in vitro depend on non-synaptic mechanisms, presumably via axo-axonal gap junctions selleckchem between pyramidal cells. We suggest a model of in vivo SPW-Rs in which synaptic excitatory post-synaptic

potentials (EPSPs) control the axonal spiking of cells in SPW-Rs: ripple activity remains hidden in the network of axonal collaterals (connected by gap junctions) due to conduction 3-MA order failures, unless there is a sufficient dendritic EPSP. The EPSP brings the axonal branching point to threshold, and action potentials from the collateral start to propagate to the soma and to the distal axon. The model coherently explains multiple experimental data on SPW-Rs, both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of synaptic gating leads to the following implication: a sequence of pyramidal cells can be replayed at ripple frequency by the superposition of subthreshold dendritic EPSPs and ripple activity in the axonal plexus. Replay is demonstrated in both forward and reverse directions. We discuss buy Sorafenib several testable predictions. In general, the mechanism of synaptic gating suggests that pyramidal cells under certain conditions can act like a transistor. “
“The perirhinal

cortex, which is critical for long-term stimulus–stimulus associative memory, consists of two cytoarchitectonically distinct subdivisions: area 35 (A35) and area 36 (A36). Previous electrophysiological studies suggested that macaque A36 is involved in both association and retrieval processes during a visual pair-association task. However, the neuronal properties of macaque A35 have never been examined because A35 is located in a very narrow region, which makes it difficult to systematically record single-unit activity from there. In the present study, we overcame this technical difficulty for targeting A35 by combining magnetic resonance imaging-guided in-vivo localization with postmortem histological localization. This two-track approach enabled us to record from 181 A35 neurons in two macaque monkeys while they performed a pair-association task. Among these neurons, 64 showed stimulus-selective responses during the cue period (cue-selective neurons), whereas 18 did during the delay period (delay-selective neurons).

The deamination promoted by ADA activity was linear up to 40 min

The deamination promoted by ADA activity was linear up to 40 min (Supporting Information, Fig. S1a) and in the range of 50–150 μg protein mL−1 (Fig. S1b). Therefore, we chose to use 100 μg protein mL−1 from cultures in further enzyme assays. The viability of the trophozoites was not affected by any of the conditions used in the assays. When trophozoite suspensions were incubated with their respective times and protein contents without the substrate adenosine, there PI3K inhibitor was no significant production of NH3. Therefore, the involvement of other

NH3 sources was negligible in the assay condition tested. To evaluate the influence of pH on ADA activity, the enzyme assays were carried out in a pH range of 6.5–8.5. The buffers used were sodium phosphate (used in a pH range from 6.5 to 7.5) and sodium carbonate Z-VAD-FMK clinical trial bicarbonate buffer (assayed for pH 8.5). The results showed that the optimum pH for ADA was 7.5 (Fig. 1a); therefore, this value was chosen for the subsequent experiments. In order to investigate a possible effect

of divalent cations on ADA activity, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were used. Both cations were able to decrease (approximately 50%) the ADA activity at the lower tested concentration (2.5 mM). When tested at a higher concentration (5.0 mM), Mg2+ inhibited 80% of ADA activity and Ca2+ completely abolished the activity. This effect is specifically caused by cations because it was prevented by the addition of EDTA (Fig. 1b). The adenosine deamination was determined at adenosine concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 3.0 mM (Fig. 2). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (KM app) and maximum velocity (Vmax app) were estimated from a Eadie–Hofstee plot (inset, Fig. 2). The apparent KM was 1.13 ± 0.07 mM (mean ± SD, n=4), whereas the calculated Vmax was 2.61 ± 0.054 nmol NH3 min−1 mg−1 protein (mean ± SD, n=4). The relative substrate specificity of T. vaginalis ADA was determined

(Table S1). Adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine were substrates for ADA, presenting the activities 1.9 ± 0.6 and 2.9 ± 0.5 nmol NH3 min−1 mg−1 protein, respectively. Guanosine and 2-deoxyguanosine were not deaminated. We measured the adenosine deamination in T. vaginalis in the presence and in the absence of EHNA, a potent inhibitor of ADA1 activity (Iwaki-Egawa & Watanabe, 2002; Tangeritin Sharoyan et al., 2006; Rosemberg et al., 2008). The incubation time of 20 min for EHNA inhibition was used because this was the optimal time for all enzyme assays, ensuring the linearity of the reaction. After the EHNA treatment, trichomonads were metabolically active because they were inoculated in TYM medium for the subsequent experiments including the ADA assay and interaction with human neurophils. Moreover, the parasites presented motility and cellular integrity checked using trypan blue dye exclusion after EHNA incubation at all concentrations.

As predicted through surface

topology analysis (CASTp), t

As predicted through surface

topology analysis (CASTp), the groove volume at the active-site signature motifs of sDacD is 326.1 Ǻ3 (Fig. 2b), whereas that of sPBP5 is 960.8 Ǻ3 (Chowdhury & Ghosh, 2011). The smaller groove of sDacD possibly affects the binding of pentapeptide and, therefore, may decrease DD-CPase activity. However, activity toward smaller substrates such as Bocillin-FL may not be impaired. It is noteworthy that although the active-site groove volume of sDacD is nearly three times smaller than PBP5, it is about double the size of that of sPBP6 (161.5 Ǻ) (Chowdhury & Ghosh, 2011), which may explain why sDacD exerted better DD-CPase GPCR Compound Library supplier activity than sPBP6 towards pentapeptide substrate (Table 2). Unlike other DD-CPases, PBP5 mutant sensitizes E. coli to beta-lactam antibiotics and complementation of PBP5 restores the resistance (Sarkar et al., 2010). The reason for the PBP5-mediated beta-lactam resistance lies in its typical enzymatic properties. PBP5 deacylates beta-lactam more rapidly than PBP6 does (Chowdhury et al., 2010), even though PBP5 does not possess any beta-lactamase activity (Sarkar et al., 2010) at physiological pH, which is in disagreement with earlier claims (Georgopapadakou, 1993; Davies et al., 2001). It is proposed that PBP5 may behave as a trap for beta-lactams and provide a shielding effect over the lethal targets, which

in turn protects the essential PBPs from being inhibited (Sarkar et al., 2010). This may be due to the high deacylation efficiency and the high copy number of PBP5, and both factors taken together may act such that the effective pool of INCB024360 price PBP5 remains available to bind beta-lactams. On the

other hand, PBP6 due to its low deacylation efficiency cannot reverse the lost beta-lactam resistance in PBP5 mutants, even when it is overexpressed (Sarkar et al., 2010, 2011). In contrast to PBP6, DacD can rescue the lost beta-lactam resistance in E. coli PBP5 mutant, at least partially (Sarkar et al., 2011). Our results reveal that sDacD possesses a higher rate of deacylation activity toward beta-lactams (~ 65% of PBP5) compared with PBP6. Therefore, it makes sense that DacD can partially substitute Loperamide the loss of PBP5 in terms of maintaining intrinsic beta-lactam resistance when expressed in mid-logarithmic phase. These observations imply that the cellular function of DacD is more closely related to PBP5 than with PBP6. In silico analyses of sDacD also reveals a possible structural relatedness with PBP5. Nevertheless, little differences in the orientation of the active-site residues exist, which probably cause these two proteins to act differently. The identical topology of sDacD and PBP5 at the Ω-type loop region predicts a high deacylation efficiency of sDacD. However, DacD possesses comparatively weak DD-CPase activity, possibly due to a far-reaching change in the orientation of Lys 46 from the active-site serine residue (Ser 43).

Here, we initially characterized the reconsolidation of an appeti

Here, we initially characterized the reconsolidation of an appetitive memory. Then, we compared appetitive reconsolidation with its aversive counterpart regarding the implication of OA in these processes, and contrasted them with previous findings obtained in the consolidation phase. Our results demonstrate that appetitive reconsolidation takes place when animals are re-exposed to the training context, as shown by the amnesic

effect of cycloheximide when applied before the reminder. In addition, the no-reinforcement during the reminder is a necessary condition for appetitive reconsolidation to Selleckchem Erismodegib occur. Remarkably, appetitive reconsolidation is neither impaired by OA receptor antagonists nor facilitated by exogenous OA, whereas aversive

reconsolidation PI3K inhibitor can be interfered with by OA administration. Thus, our results indicate that appetitive reconsolidation does not involve OA signaling, while aversive reconsolidation is negatively modulated by OA. All in all, these results could constitute a step towards the identification of particular features of appetitive and aversive reconsolidation. “
“Sites within the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex may regulate how responses maintained by cues associated with cocaine are extinguished. To test the role of various brain sites in the consolidation of cocaine-cue extinction learning, the dorsal subiculum (dSUB), rostral basolateral amygdala

(rBLA) and infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) were manipulated in rats. Following cocaine self-administration training (cues present, cocaine available), responding was assessed during 1-h extinction tests (cues present, no cocaine available). To study extinction consolidation specifically, the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin or vehicle was infused bilaterally into the dSUB, rBLA or IL either immediately following or 6 h after the first two of three extinction training Dynein sessions. With manipulations made immediately after extinction sessions, infusions of anisomycin into the dSUB or the rBLA deterred extinction. Rats maintained elevated levels of cocaine seeking relative to vehicle despite the absence of cocaine delivery. Manipulations of IL had no effect. Control studies showed that bilateral protein synthesis inhibition in dSUB and rBLA 6 h after the extinction sessions ended was unable to deter extinction. Rats reduced cocaine seeking in the usual manner in the absence of cocaine delivery. Collectively, these findings suggest that the dSUB and rBLA are neural substrates important for consolidation of cocaine-cue extinction learning and have time-dependent roles. Understanding the contribution of individual neural substrates for cocaine-cue extinction consolidation may help guide treatment strategies aimed at enhancing cue exposure therapy in cocaine-dependent people.

, 1991) All 102 strains used in this study are available at CAHF

, 1991). All 102 strains used in this study are available at CAHFS and received an internal strain ID as listed in Table 1. The complete list of the S. Enteritidis strains, source, geographical diversity of isolates and other details are included in Table 1. Salmonella Enteritidis genomic DNA was extracted using the GenElute Bacterial Genomic DNA Kit (Sigma, St Louis, MO) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Primers used for PCR amplification of caiC and SEN0629 locus Everolimus research buy fragments are listed in Table 2. PCR was carried out in a PTC 100 Peltier Thermal Cycler (GMI, Ramsey, MN). PCR amplification was performed using the ReadyMix Taq PCR Reaction

Mix (Sigma) following the manufacturer’s instructions. PCR was carried out in a final volume of 50 μL using 25 μL of the ReadyMix, 0.3 μM of each primer, 1 μL of DNA extract and sterile water to make up the final volume. The PCR thermal cycling conditions included an initial denaturation at 94 °C for 5 min, 35 cycles

of denaturation at 95 °C GSK1120212 cell line for 30 s, annealing at 55 °C for 40 s, extension at 68 °C for 60 s and final extension at 68 °C for 5 min. PCR products were purified using a QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), according to the manufacturer’s instructions, and analysed by 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Purified PCR products were sent to the University of California DNA sequencing facility at the University of California (Davis, CA) along with PCR primers for direct sequencing. Sequencing was performed in both directions to ensure accuracy. Sequences obtained in this study and those retrieved from GenBank were aligned using clustalw integrated in the freely available arb software package (Ludwig et al., 2004). Alignments were trimmed to a uniform length (corresponding to nucleotide positions 82788–83514 for caiC and 696231–697280 for SEN0629 on the genome sequence of S. Enteritidis str. 125109, accession no. AM933172). The trimmed alignments were used to construct a concatenated alignment. Phylogenetic trees based on the neighbour-joining method (Saitou & Nei, 1987) were constructed from the individual alignments as well as from the concatenated

alignment using mega version 4.0 Thymidine kinase package (Tamura et al., 2007). Evolutionary distances were calculated by Kimura’s two-parameter model of substitution (Kimura, 1980). Bootstrap confidence values were generated using 1000 repeats of bootstrap samplings (Felsenstein, 1985). The nucleotide sequences determined in this study have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers JN546231–JN546434. Full alignments of all 16 sequence types displaying all bases as well as differences to sequence type 1 were deposited as a popset in GenBank. caiC encodes a probable crotonobetaine/carnitine–CoA ligase and the fragment analysed ranged from position 82788 to 83514 on the genome sequence of S. Enteritidis str. P125109, accession no. AM933172.