The broad spectral bandwidth of the excitation

pulses obv

The broad spectral bandwidth of the excitation

pulses obviously promotes the feasibility of the observed two-photon channel. Theoretical estimates concerning the contribution of nonlinear absorbance strongly support the experimental findings. The essential conditions for proper utilization of this process are discussed. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3468632]“
“Poly(lactic acid), as a natural source polymer, was used to prepare pervaporation dense membranes. The performance of these membranes for the separation of the methanol (MeOH)/methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) mixtures was investigated. The effects of different operating conditions, including the feed concentration of MeOH, temperature, and flow rate, were examined. Several characterization tests were performed as well. The swelling results, scanning electron microscopy images, contact ARO 002 angles, and mechanical strength measurements are presented. These membranes were found to be selective to MeOH, particularly for traces of MeOH in MTBE with a separation factor of more than 30. There was a small decrease in the separation factor when the feed temperature was increased; meanwhile, the total flux increased to some extent. This could be explained AZD4547 with respect to the thermal motions of the polymer chains and the permeating molecules. With an increase in the feed flow rate,

both the selectivity and total flux increased because the concentration and temperature polarizations decreased. At higher flow rates, the feed components were homogeneously

distributed over the membrane surface, whereas there may have been a concentration or temperature gradient at lower flow rates. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1364-1371, 2010″
“Enhancing waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion by thermal pretreatment has become of high interest. However, thermal treatment has been mainly combined to mesophilic anaerobic digestion. This paper presents the combination of sludge thermal pretreatment (110, 165 and 220 Q and batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55 degrees C). Optimal conditions of thermal pretreatment were shown to be 165 degrees C, involving a chemical Vactosertib in vivo oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) solubilisation of 18 and 15% and a biodegradability increase from 47 to 61%. Treatments at 165 C were carried out in electric and steam modes and no significant difference on the impact of heating mode oil sludge anaerobic biodegradability was observed. Moreover, it may be recommended not to carry Out Successive batch experiments to assess thermophilic BMP of sludge as accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA), particularly propionate, and a decrease of VFA uptake rates may occur. However, thermal pretreatment at 165 C allowed the decrease of propionate accumulation and an higher methane production. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The FT-IR spectra of the lead-exposed bones show significant alte

The FT-IR spectra of the lead-exposed bones show significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to lead exposure. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the lead-exposed bones were less than those of the control group, and there was an increase in the mineral contents of the bones

after DMSA treatment. In conclusion, Torin 2 the present study suggests that the subchronic lead exposure results in severe loss of bone minerals. The overall decrease in the FT-IR band intensity of Pb-exposed bones relative to the control indicates a decrease in the biochemical constituents like proteins and lipids. The increase in the band intensity after treatment with chelating agent DMSA indicates increased biochemical constituents, showing that the subchronic effects of lead can be reversed by DMSA. The amide I bands observed at 1654 cm(-1) in the present study suggest that the protein is click here dominated by alpha-helical structure. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 25: 61-67, 2010.”
“Postoperative ileus (POI) is an iatrogenic complication of abdominal surgery, mediated by a severe inflammation of the muscularis externa (ME). Previously, we demonstrated that intravenous application of

the tetravalent guanylhydrazone semapimod (CNI-1493) prevents POI, but the underlying mode of action could not definitively be confirmed. Herein, we investigated the effect of a novel orally active salt of semapimod (CPSI-2364) on POI in rodents and distinguished between its inhibitory peripheral and stimulatory central nervous effects on anti-inflammatory vagus nerve signaling.

Distribution GSK923295 mw of radiolabeled

orally administered CPSI-2364 was analyzed by whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. POI was induced by intestinal manipulation with or without preoperative vagotomy. CPSI-2364 was administered preoperatively via gavage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ME specimens were assessed for p38-MAP kinase activity by immunoblotting, neutrophil extravasation, and nitric oxide production. Furthermore, in vivo gastrointestinal (GIT) and colonic transit were measured.

Autoradiography demonstrated a near-exclusive detection of CPSI-2364 within the gastrointestinal wall and contents. Preoperative CPSI-2364 application significantly reduced postoperative neutrophil counts, nitric oxide release, GIT deceleration, and delay of colonic transit time, while intraoperatively administered CPSI-2364 failed to improve POI. CPSI-2364 also prevents postoperative neutrophil increase and GIT deceleration in vagotomized mice.

The use of t BPM enabled the pragmatic, effective and results-dir

The use of t.BPM enabled the pragmatic, effective and results-directed creation of outlines for the CP. The development of both CP was finished from the diagnostic evaluation to the adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy and rehabilitation phase. The integration of checklists, guidelines Stem Cell Compound Library order and important medical or other documents is easily accomplished. A direct integration into the hospital computer system is currently not possible for technical reasons.

BPMN and t.BPM are sufficiently suitable for the planned modelling and imaging of CP. The application

in medicine is new, and transfer from the industrial process management is in principle possible. BPMN-CP may be used for teaching and training, patient information and quality management.

The graphical image is clearly structured and appealing. Even though the efficiency in the creation of BPMN-CP increases markedly after the training phase, high amounts of manpower and time are required. The most sensible and consequent application of a BPMN-CP would be the direct integration into the hospital computer system. The integration of a modelling language, such as BPMN, into the hospital computer systems could be a very sensible approach for the development of new hospital information systems in the future.”
“Advances in proteomic technology have enabled contaminant proteins to be identified from complex protein mixtures. The purity of two purified urinary gonadotrophin products, human

menopausal gonadotrophin (u-HMG) and human FSH (u-hFSH), was compared with a preparation of recombinant human FSH (r-hFSH). After 17DMAG separation by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide, I electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), western blot analysis showed that the recombinant preparation contained only FSH, whereas the urine-derived preparations exhibited several non-FSH or LH-related bands. These urinary components were further investigated by a proteomic approach using OICR-9429 two-dimensional SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometric identification. The proteomic approach detected a total of 23 non-gonadotrophin-related proteins, at variable levels in different batches of the urine-derived preparations. Of these, 16 co-purified proteins have not been previously reported to be present in urine-derived gonadotrophins. These results indicate that the process used to purify urinary gonadotrophins may not remove all non-gonadotrophin proteins. By using a comprehensive proteomic approach, it has been shown that the recombinant FSH preparation has greater purity than either of the urine-derived preparations.”
“OBJECTIVES: Aortic valve calcification and changes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) were specifically assessed by computed tomography (CT). The main difference between TAVI and the conventional technique is the compression of the cusps of the calcified native valve against the aortic wall before implantation.

We conclude that, on the whole, the five studies were clearly in

We conclude that, on the whole, the five studies were clearly in favor of maintaining access to LTx

lists for BCC infected or colonized CF patients. In other words, access to LTx should not be denied to BCC infected CF patients in that the beneficial effects of LTx do not differ with respect to non-infected patients: comparison showed neither a difference in survival nor a higher mortality risk. However, selleckchem results would differ for Burkholderia cenocepacia infected CF patients prior to LTx: both short- and long-term survival are significantly lower when B. cenocepacia infected patients are compared to other BCC infected patients or non-infected patients. Hence, current evidence shows that careful screening of all BCC suspected

CF patients and risk-aware multidisciplinary management should be achieved before listing patients for LTx. This would allow identification of different bacterial species (in particular, B. cenocepacia) present and optimize lung transplantation survival outcomes. (c) 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To report results of audiometric evaluations in high-risk congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors and their exposure to audiological risk factors (mechanical ventilation, high frequency oscillation, aminoglycoside therapy and neuromuscular blocking agents).

Design: All newborns with high-risk congenital diaphragmatic hernia born between January 2003 and June 2009 were treated consecutively at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Z-IETD-FMK mouse University of Padova. Thirty-two survived and 26 of them underwent formal audiological evaluation (tonal and speech audiometry, otoacoustic emission, and immitance measurements) and follow up.

Results: Twenty-one children had normal hearing; 4 had conductive this website hearing loss, which was successfully treated; and 1 had severe sensorineural hearing loss and suffers from Turner syndrome.

Conclusions: Our series revealed a lower prevalence

of sensorineural hearing loss in high-risk congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors than in other studies, suggesting that the association between hearing loss and congenital diaphragmatic hernia has yet to be accurately defined and fully elucidated. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: In 1994, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) introduced plans to implement a trauma system based on the recommendations outlined by Professor Donald Trunkey in his report to the local Hospital Authority. Five government-subsidized public hospitals were subsequently designated as trauma centers in 2003. This article reviews the initial experience in these five centers.

Methods: Prospective trauma registries from January 2004 to December 2008 were reviewed. Primary clinical outcome measures were hospital mortality.

33 (1 06-1 67))

Conclusion: Our results indicate gend

33 (1.06-1.67)).

Conclusion: Our results indicate gender differences Ro-3306 in the association between plasma selenium concentration and metabolic syndrome without diabetes and may suggest a sub-clinical

deleterious effect of high selenium status in women. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Manihot esculenta (cassava) contains two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, biosynthesized from L-valine and L-isoleucine, respectively. In this study, cDNAs encoding two uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) paralogs, assigned the names UGT85K4 and UGT85K5, have been isolated from cassava. The paralogs display 96% amino acid identity, and belong to a family containing cyanogenic glucoside-specific UGTs from Sorghum bicolor and Prunus dulcis. Recombinant UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 produced in Escherichia coli were able to glucosylate acetone cyanohydrin and 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyronitrile, VX-809 research buy forming linamarin and lotaustralin. UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 show broad in vitro substrate specificity, as documented by their ability to glucosylate other hydroxynitriles, some flavonoids and simple alcohols. Immunolocalization studies indicated that UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 co-occur with CYP79D1/D2 and CYP71E7

paralogs, which catalyze earlier steps in cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in cassava. These enzymes are all found in mesophyll and xylem parenchyma cells in the first unfolded cassava leaf. In situ PCR showed that UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 are co-expressed with CYP79D1 and both CYP71E7 paralogs in the cortex, xylem and phloem parenchyma, P5091 supplier and in specific cells in the endodermis of the petiole of the first unfolded leaf. Based on the data obtained,

UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 are concluded to be the UGTs catalyzing in planta synthesis of cyanogenic glucosides. The localization of the biosynthetic enzymes suggests that cyanogenic glucosides may play a role in both defense reactions and in fine-tuning nitrogen assimilation in cassava.”
“Despite the recent global spread of CTX-M beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs), their dissemination has been little studied in developing countries. In a 2-year prospective study, we documented the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in E. coli that were responsible for CA-UTIs in Phnom-Penh, Cambodia. Ninety-three E. coli strains were included. We observed a high prevalence of resistance to amoxicillin (88.2% of strains), cotrimoxazole (75.3%), ciprofloxacin (67.7%), gentamicin (42.5%), and third-generation cephalosporins (37.7%). A total of 34 strains carried ESBLs, all of which were CTX-M type. CTX-M carriage was associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR, we identified 4 clusters containing 9, 8, 3, and 2 strains.

In addition to reducing the amplified high-frequency noise, this

In addition to reducing the amplified high-frequency noise, this reconstruction extrapolates missing k-space samples in the case of undersampled compressed-sensing acquisitions. The technique is successfully demonstrated for noncontrast-enhanced flow-independent angiography of the lower extremities, an application that substantially benefits from both the signal compensation and the nonlinear

“Background/Aims: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been thought to promote endotoxin translocation from the gut. Increased endotoxin activity (EA) has been related to a worsening of organ dysfunction, particularly acute kidney injury (AKI). This study aims to determine if CPB could influence EA after cardiac surgery, and if EA variations are associated with renal dysfunction following CPB. Methods: This was an observational study of patients subjected to complex cardiac surgery, likely to last for >120 min. Blood samples were obtained before, during and after CPB for EA analysis. AKI occurrence defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria was evaluated. Results: Eighteen patients were enrolled. EA significantly increased after 12 h following CPB. Variations of EA from baseline were significantly associated with variations of creatinine, FK866 i.e. AKI. Conclusion: Complex cardiac

surgery requiring long CPB promotes EA increases that could be associated with variations of serum creatinine and AKI occurrence. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Grape seeds are increasingly on demand as a side product of wine industry. Having oligomeric proanthocyanides (PAs) in their structure, grape seeds can be used as antioxidising

agents in a wide area of applications. In the present study, a variety of grape seeds (powder, grape seed extract and modified extract) have been tested for their effects on free formaldehyde readily found on leather. Formaldehyde was quantified with two methods; AATCC test method 112 was employed to measure free formaldehyde and that of hydrolysed form obtained at 49 degrees C for 20 h. By IUC 19 (ISO IS 17226) method, free formaldehyde and a little formaldehyde from the hydrolysis was obtained at 40 degrees C Ilomastat nmr for 1 h. The results indicated that the grape seeds in all forms used at the step of retanning process lowered free formaldehyde at appreciable levels. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purposes: To determine the effect of Elaeagnus conferta Roxb dry fruit powder (ECR) on blood alcohol clearance and on the activities of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH).

Methods: In a randomized controlled study, acute alcohol intoxication was induced in mice with Hongxing liquor containing 65 % v/v ethanol orally. The effect of ECR on blood alcohol clearance and on the activities of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase in the mice was then investigated.

01) of alpha(2)beta(1), alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(5), beta(1)

01) of alpha(2)beta(1), alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(5), beta(1) and alpha(1) integrins and a minimal expression of alpha(4)beta(1) integrins. Moreover, CD133(+) cells derived from both prostate cancer tissues and peripheral blood exhibited an increased degree of attachment to extracellular matrix proteins (P < 0.001) and a high expression level of alpha(2)beta(1)

integrin. In vitro experiments using blocking antibodies indicated that alpha(1) and beta(1) integrins have a role in the homing and differentiation of PCSCs. This is the first report to suggest the importance of integrins in mediating the homing and differentiation of PCSCs.”
“Compelling evidence suggests that both schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are related to deviant neurodevelopment. Neurological soft signs (NSS) have been proposed to be a marker of abnormal brain development in Entinostat schizophrenia. The purpose of this study is to examine whether NSS are also a marker in patients with OCD, in particular, in early-onset OCD. The authors included 162 subjects and compared patients with OCD, patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), and healthy control subjects. selleck screening library They were all examined for NSS (Krebs’ Scale), extrapyramidal symptoms (Simpson-Angus Scale), and were rated on the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS).

The authors found no differences between NSS total scores and subscores in OCD versus controls, whereas total NSS, motor coordination, and motor

integration were significantly lower in OCD than in SCZ:. OCD patients GDC-0941 cost with early-onset (before age 13) did not differ from those with later-onset OCD. These results support the idea that NSS, as determined by current scales, is relatively specific to schizophrenia, although they do not preclude the existence of a neurological dysfunction in OCD. Further studies are required to determine the type of neurological signs that could be useful trait-markers in the phenotypic characterization of subtype OCD. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; 23:409-416)”
“The structure and magnetic properties were studied for ternary Tb-Fe-B melt-spun ribbons with nominal composition of Tb14Fe86-xBx (x = 5.2-6.8). Effect of boron content and melt-spun wheel speed on the coercivity of the ribbons was investigated. With the increase of boron content, the coercivity of the Tb-Fe-B ribbons increases first, and then decreases. XRD results show that the impurities of TbFe2 phase and FeB phase exist in low boron content and high boron content ribbons, respectively, resulting in the coercivity degradation of the ribbons. For the Tb14Fe79.6B6.4 ribbons, the wheel speed plays an important role in their magnetic properties.

The preoperative PO averaged 19 5 degrees in Group I and 22 9 in

The preoperative PO averaged 19.5 degrees in Group I and 22.9 in Group II (P = 0.22), which corrected after surgery to 9.7 degrees versus 7.4 (P = 0.23), respectively. IWR-1-endo cell line Group II correction progressively improved significantly compared to Group I (7.0 degrees vs. 11.6 degrees at P = 0.046) at the latest follow-up. A 40.6% correction (mean correction = 7.9) in sitting PO in Group I compared to 70.7% correction (mean correction

= 5.9 degrees) in Group II was observed (P = 0.004). The average loss of correction of PO at the final follow-up was lesser in group II, but not statistically significant (P = 0.07).

Conclusion. Anterior fusion of the lumbosacral junction followed by posterior fusion provides superior correction and maintenance of PO in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis.”
“Background: The prominent clinical feature of cachexia has traditionally been understood to be weight loss; however, in recognition of the potential for divergent behavior of muscle and adipose tissue, cachexia was recently defined as loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. Detailed assessments are required to verify body composition in patients with cancer cachexia.


We adopted a population-based approach to study body composition in patients with cancer, with the use of diagnostic computed tomography images acquired for cancer diagnosis and follow-up. A prospective cohort of 441 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, who were referred consecutively to a regional medical oncology service in Alberta, Canada, was evaluated.

Results: At referral (median time to death: 265 d), mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) was 24.9, Cl-amidine mouse with 47.4% of patients being overweight or obese. Only 7.5% overall were underweight as conventionally understood (BMI < 18.5). Analysis of computed tomography images showed extremely

high heterogeneity of muscle mass within all strata of BMI. The overall prevalence of severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) was 46.8% and was present in patients in all BMI categories. A much higher proportion of men (61%) than women (31%) met the criteria for sarcopenia.

Conclusions: Wasting of skeletal muscle is a prominent feature of patients with lung cancer, despite normal or heavy body weights. The significance of muscle wasting in normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients R406 as a nutritional risk factor, as a prognostic factor, and as a predictor of cancer treatment toxicity is discussed in this article. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(suppl):1133S-7S.”
“Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments protected animal models from developing chronic lung infection by P. aeruginosa. In the present study, the effects of ginseng on the formation of P.

In this study we treated five patients with prostacyclin sufferin

In this study we treated five patients with prostacyclin suffering vasospasm after a ruptured aneurysm not responding to high i.v. doses of nimodipine. All patients were severely ill, Wnt inhibitor unconscious and in need of intensive care.


low dose of prostacyclin i.v. infusion for 72 h reversed the vasospasm as measured by transcranial Doppler technique. The mean MCA blood flow velocity decreased from 199 +/- 31 cm/s to 92 +/- 6 cm/s within 72 h after the start of the prostacyclin infusion.

We suggest that low-dose prostacyclin treatment, an old treatment strategy, can be a treatment option in patients with vasospasm not responding to ordinary measures.”
“Background: Voriconazole is a triazole agent with excellent antifungal activity against Aspergillus species. However, despite its potential advantages, the occurrence of unpredictable toxicities might be critical in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for voriconazole-related severe adverse events (SAEs).

Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in Korean patients with hematological

malignancies and invasive aspergillosis on intravenous voriconazole therapy between June 2008 and April 2009.

Results: Of the 25 patients enrolled, eight (32%) showed voriconazole-related SAEs, which included hepatotoxicities (n = 5), cardiac tachyarrhythmias (n = 2), and neurotoxicity (n = 1). Sex, age, underlying find more hematological malignancies, voriconazole dose, the co-administration of a proton pump inhibitor, and CYP2C19 genotype were not found to be related to the occurrence of SAEs. However, trough plasma concentrations of voriconazole were found to be significantly higher in the patients with an SAE: median 6.32 mg/l (interquartile range (IQR) 2.86-9.71 mg/l) vs. median 2.15 mg/l (IQR 0.92-4.00 mg/l); p = Selleckchem ZD1839 0.011. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a cut-off trough concentration for SAEs of 5.83 mg/l (sensitivity 62.5% and specificity 94.1%). Furthermore, multivariate

analysis showed that a trough concentration of >= 5.83 mg/l was the only significant independent risk factor of an SAE.

Conclusions: This study shows that therapeutic drug monitoring is indicated in patients with a voriconazole-related SAE and that dose adjustment is required if the trough concentration of voriconazole exceeds 5.83 mg/l. (C) 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Two series of blends, O-PP15 and O-PP35, were prepared by mixing polypropylene (PP), luminescent powders (SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+) of 15 and 35 mu m average particle diameter, and hydrophobic dispersant at about 190 degrees C in the Brabender mixer. The effect of amounts and diameter of luminescent powders on the physical properties of PP material were discussed herein. The luminescence and afterglow time tests indicated that the initial luminescence of all blends increased with the luminescent powders amounts.

By using this model, the impact of incremental periods of reperfu

By using this model, the impact of incremental periods of reperfusion on mortality and remote organ dysfunctions can be characterized. Future studies are necessary to better define a threshold for this injury pattern and the impact of other factors underlying this syndrome.”
“OBJECTIVES: Family members of patients in a vegetative state have relatively high rates of anxiety and distress. It is important to recognize the problems faced by this population and apply psychological interventions to help them. This exploratory study describes the psychological stress experienced by family

members of patients in a vegetative state. We discuss the effectiveness of a psychological crisis intervention directed at this population and offer suggestions for future clinical work.

METHODS: A total of 107 family members of patients in a vegetative state selleck kinase inhibitor were included in the study. The intervention included four steps: acquisition of facts about each family, sharing their first thoughts concerning the event, assessment of their emotional reactions and developing their coping abilities. The Symptom Check List-90 was used to evaluate the psychological distress

of the participants at baseline and one month after the psychological intervention. Differences between the Symptom Check List-90 scores at the baseline and follow-up evaluations were analyzed.

RESULTS: All participants in the study had significantly higher Symptom Check List-90 factor scores than the national norms at baseline.

Chk inhibitor There were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group at baseline. Most of the Symptom Check List-90 factor scores at the one-month follow-up evaluation were significantly lower than those at baseline for both groups; however, the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group on most subscales, including somatization, obsessive-compulsive NVP-HSP990 research buy behavior, depression, and anxiety.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the four-step intervention method effectively improves the mental health of the family members who received this treatment and lessens the psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression and anxiety.”
“Peppermint ((Mentha piperita L.), family, lamiaceae) is vegetatively propagated (through runners or stolon and rhizomes) high demand aromatic/medicinal crop. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L Herit ex Ait, family, Geraniaceae) is also vegetatively propagated (through rooted stem cutting), high value aromatic crop. Essential oil is extensively used in fragrance, aromatherapy, flavor, and pharmaceutical industries.