29 Second, there is the issue of contamination (ie, members of

29 Second, there is the issue of contamination (i.e., members of the control group gets screening outside the trial). Because many of these patients have cirrhosis, they will be getting ultrasounds (US) for other reasons, even in the control group. Given the publicity around the study, RGFP966 some patients in the

control group might decide to get US done anyway. It will also be very difficult to standardize treatment. All of these factors mitigate against the successful conclusion of any RCT of screening for HCC. The gastrointestinal/hepatology community accepts the need for screening, because when at-risk patients do not undergo screening, they present with symptoms late in the course of their HCC and they die from their cancer within MK-1775 mouse a few weeks to months in almost 100% of cases. In contrast, early detection of HCC is associated with a high rate of cure that may, under the best of circumstances, reach 90%. Liver cancer is also different from many other cancers, in that there is no curative treatment for intermediate- or advanced-stage tumors. Other cancers that have progressed to more advanced stages may respond to adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation. In contrast, for HCC, neither chemotherapy nor radiation for late-stage disease will reduce mortality. However, there are effective treatments

for early-stage disease. Resection, transplantation, and local ablation of small lesions are potentially curative therapies and thus highly likely to lead to reduced mortality. Although, on a population basis, it remains to be demonstrated that these treatments will reduce mortality, it is hard to imagine that a 90% cure rate, such as is achievable with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lesions <2 cm in diameter,30 a 30% long-term cure rate with resection,31, 32 and a 70%-80% cure rate this website with transplantation33, 34 will not translate into

a decrease in overall HCC-related mortality, compared to an unscreened group. Discussions around screening rightly take into account that screening is not an entirely benign process, and that some patients who are labeled as having cancer because of a false-positive screening test result will be worse off than if they had not had screening at all. If screening is not effective, then there will be harms from applying screening, including unnecessary liver biopsies and surgeries, and unnecessary psychological harm. On the other hand, one must also consider the harms that may come from not applying screening when screening is indeed effective, even though the benefit has still be demonstrated. These include that almost all patients will die of their disease. In a sense, the issue of harms from screening revolves around overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis likely occurs with most cancer screening programs, but in the case of HCC, the risk of this is felt to be small.

The energy level and frequency of the shocks were gradually incre

The energy level and frequency of the shocks were gradually increased from lowest to highest (1-9 Kilo Jules and 1-2 Hertz). The end point

of a session was dependent on achievement of predetermined maximum number of shocks (6000), patient’s tolerance, stability of vital signs, development this website of hemobilia or satisfactory fragmentation of stones (5mm or less). Additional sessions were performed at least 24 hours apart to rule out complications. Outcome was assessed by CBD clearance. Both early and late complications were noted. Results From January 2007 to May 2014, 58 patients aged between 9 to 82 years (mean 47.76 ± 14.65) were treated by ESWL for CBD stones. Thirty one were female (53.4%). Main indications for ESWL were; large size stone (≥ 15mm) in 43 (74.1%), CBD stricture in 17 (29.3%) and

incarcerated stone in 8 (13.8%) patients. The presenting complaints include; abdominal pain in 50 (86.2%), jaundice in 40 (69%), fever in 25 (43.1%) while 18 (31%) patients were diagnosed to have cholangitis. A total of 115 ESWL sessions were performed in 58 patients with an average of 1.98 sessions per patient. The mean number of shocks was 4176 ± 1565. In 48 (82.8%) patients, the fragments were extracted endoscopically after ESWL; spontaneous passage was observed in 10 (17.2%). The CBD clearance was label as complete in 46 CDK inhibitors in clinical trials (79.3%), partial (placement of stent followed by CBD clearance at second ERCP) in 2 (3.4%) and failed in 10 (17.2%) patients. Main adverse events included fever in 7 (12.1%), cholangitis in 6 (10.3%), hematuria in 1 find more (1.7%) and hemobilia in 1 (1.7%). No procedure related death was observed. Nasobiliary drain

was displaced or removed in 6 (10.3%) cases. ESWL session could not be completed or temporarily held in 10 (17.2%) patients. Total hospital stay was 12 ± 7.26 days (range 1-42). Conclusion: The ESWL for difficult-to-retrieve CBD stones is safe and effective therapeutic option. It may be considered as an alternative to surgical exploration of CBD. Disclosures: Kapeel Raja – Grant/Research Support: Sindh institute of Urology and transplantation The following people have nothing to disclose: Syed M. Hassan, Asad A. Khan, Nasir Hassan Luck, Munnawar Khaliq, Muhammad Manzoor, Zaigham Abbas Background and aim: In the last years many elastographic techniques became available for assesing the severity of the chronic liver disease and the number of liver biopsies (LB) has decreased. The aim of this paper was to compare the histology results obtained through LB with the values from the different elastographic methods ( TE, ARFI, 2D-SWE ). Material and methods: the study included patients with chronic hepatopathies B or C that underwent LB and liver stiffness (LS) measurements by three elastographic methods (TE, ARFI, 2D-SWE) in our Department, between feb. 2013 –apr. 2014. Liver histology was assessed according to the Metavir scoring.

7, 193, 80% at the end of 5 years; 444, 394, 182% at the end

7, 19.3, 8.0% at the end of 5 years; 44.4, 39.4, 18.2% at the end of 10 years; 60.4, 52.7, 29.1% at the end of 15 years; 71.6, 60.3, 43.1% at the end of 20 years; and 87.1, 69.8, 46.9% at the end of 25 years, respectively. The rates were significantly different among the three HCV subgroups (P < 0.001) (Fig. 1). Especially, the rates in HCV-1b of Gln70(His70) were significantly higher than those in HCV-1b of Arg70 (P = 0.028) and HCV-2a/2b (P < 0.001), and selleck inhibitor the rates in HCV-1b of Arg70 were also significantly higher than those in HCV-2a/2b (P

< 0.001). During the follow-up, 104 patients (34.4%), 97 (23.4%), and 42 (10.0%) died due to liver-related causes in HCV-1b of Gln70(His70), HCV-1b of Arg70, and HCV-2a/2b, respectively. In HCV-1b of Gln70(His70), HCV-1b of Arg70, and HCV-2a/2b, the cumulative survival rates for liver-related death were 95.2, 95.4, 97.9% at the end of 5 years; 77.7, 83.3, 93.9% at the end of 10 years; 58.4, 68.4, 81.2% at the end of 15 years; 39.3, 58.4, 69.0% at the end of 20 years; and

33.8, 47.5, 59.5% at the end of 25 years, respectively. The rates were significantly different among the three HCV subgroups (P < 0.001) (Fig. 2). Especially, the rates in HCV-1b of Gln70(His70) were significantly lower than those in HCV-1b of Arg70 (P = 0.016) and HCV-2a/2b (P < 0.001), and the rates in HCV-1b of Arg70 were also significantly lower than those in HCV-2a/2b (P < 0.001). The data for

the whole population selleck screening library sample were analyzed to determine those factors that could predict hepatocarcinogenesis and survival for liver-related death. Univariate analysis identified eight parameters that significantly correlated with hepatocarcinogenesis. These included gender (male; P < 0.001), age (≥60 years; P < 0.001), total bilirubin (≥1.2 mg/dL; P < 0.001), AST (≥67 IU/L; P < 0.001), ALT (≥85 IU/L; P < 0.001), platelet count (<15.0 × 104/mm3; P < 0.001), albumin (<3.9 g/dL; P < 0.001), and lifetime cumulative alcohol intake (≥500 kg; P = 0.025). Furthermore, the rates in HCV-1b of Gln70(His70) were significantly higher than those in HCV-1b of Arg70 (P = 0.028) and HCV-2a/2b selleck (P < 0.001). These factors were entered into multivariate analysis, which then identified six parameters that significantly influenced hepatocarcinogenesis independently: gender (male; HR 1.78, P < 0.001), age (≥60 years; HR 1.68, P < 0.001), albumin (<3.9 g/dL; HR 1.94, P < 0.001), platelet count (<15.0 × 104/mm3; HR 2.89, P < 0.001), AST (≥67 IU/L; HR 1.92, P < 0.001), and HCV subgroup (HCV-1b of Gln70(His70); HR 1.94, P = 0.001) (Table 2). Univariate analysis identified seven parameters that significantly correlated with survival for liver-related death. These included gender (male; P < 0.001), age (≥60 years; P < 0.001), total bilirubin (≥1.2 mg/dL; P < 0.001), AST (≥67 IU/L; P < 0.001), ALT (≥85 IU/L; P < 0.001), platelet count (<15.0 × 104/mm3; P < 0.

“Summary  Life expectancy for haemophilia has increased s

“Summary.  Life expectancy for haemophilia has increased significantly in many countries. selleckchem This represents a major success

of the improved safety of therapeutic materials to treat haemophilia and of improved quality of care. This improved longevity will generate a population of older individuals with haemophilia with complex medical problems associated with age and managing such clinical issues is likely to be challenging. The world population is ageing in an unprecedented way in part, as a result of a major increase in life expectancy through decreased infant mortality and improvements in healthcare, housing and diet. Globally, the number of older persons is expected to exceed the number of children by 2047, but in developed countries this milestone was passed in 1998. [1] An ageing

population is likely to have wide ranging consequences for the economic and social environment of society and as older individuals have more chronic illness, the impact of a larger population of elderly individuals will be significant for healthcare systems. [1,2] The world population of persons with haemophilia (pwh) is also likely to have benefited from the general factors contributing to health improvement but have also benefited more specifically from advances in haemophilia care such as the availability find more of safe, effective factor concentrate, the development of comprehensive care programmes and therapeutic modalities such as home treatment and prophylaxis. There is clear evidence that life expectancy has increased for individuals with haemophilia. In the early part of the last century, the prevalence of haemophilia was estimated to be only 4 per 100 000 males while the prevalence in the 1990s was 13–18 per 100 000 [3]. More recent studies estimating life expectancy

for individuals with severe haemophilia not infected click here with HIV in the period 1977–2001 have ranged from 63 years for the UK, to 70 years (Netherlands) and 73 years (Canada). [4–6] However, because improvements in haemophilia care have been relatively recent and the high mortality rate from bleeding and transfusion transmitted infection, particularly HIV in past decades, there is, at present, in many countries, a relatively small population of severely affected individuals with haemophilia at advanced age and thus, relatively little experience in managing age-related medical problems in this group of individuals. As much as 88% of the general population over the age of 65 years have one or more chronic medical condition [7] and for the first time, many countries have seen the emergence of a significant middle aged and elderly population of persons with haemophilia.

“With the changes in diet structure and lifestyle, the inc

“With the changes in diet structure and lifestyle, the incidence of fatty liver disease is increasing in China, especially in cities. The goal of the present study was to accurately determine the prevalence and risk factors of fatty liver disease in Beijing residents, China. By using random multistage stratification and cluster sampling, residents aged > 20 years in Dongcheng District and Tongzhou selleckchem District were recruited, and questionnaire survey, physical examination, detection of fasting glucose, blood lipids and liver biochemistry, and ultrasonography of the liver, gallbladder, and spleen were carried out.

Database EpiData 3.0 was employed for data input, followed by statistical analysis with SPSS version 11.0. A total of 3762 residents were included in the present study including 2328 males and 1434 females with a mean age of 46.37 ± 14.28 years (range 20–92 years). Ultrasonography revealed fatty liver in 1486 residents with a prevalence of 39.5%. Moreover, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease were found in 1177 (31.3%) and see more 309 (8.2%) residents, respectively. After adjustment of prevalence based on the age

and gender constituents of Beijing residents, the standardized prevalence of overall fatty liver disease, NAFLD, and alcoholic fatty liver disease was 35.1%, 31.0%, and 4.1%, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were closely related to NAFLD. The Beijing residents have a high prevalence of fatty liver disease as much as 35.1%, which is characterized by NAFLD. Obesity, and glucose and lipid metabolism disorders

are the main risk factors of fatty liver disease. “
“Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) affects more than 30% of patients with cirrhosis, and it has been suggested that despite no recognizable clinical symptoms of neurological abnormalities, it may affect health-related quality of life (HRQL); however, this fact remains controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of MHE and HRQL in patients diagnosed with decompensated cirrhosis. Patients with liver cirrhosis were selected independent of the etiology of the disease. All patients underwent a complete learn more clinical history, and only patients with decompensated hepatic cirrhosis were included. Psychometric tests were applied to evaluate the presence of MHE along with the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire. Appetite was measured by verbal and visual analog scales. One hundred and twenty-five patients were included with a median age of 56.0 years. They were classified according to the Child–Pugh index as A, (n = 56), B, (n = 51) and C (n = 18). Prevalence of MHE was 44.0% (n = 55). In patients with MHE, a significant reduction was observed in domains of activity (3.3 [2.0] vs 4.8 [2.8]), fatigue (3.2 [2.0] vs 3.9 [2.

22 The more likely explanation is that these individuals had abno

22 The more likely explanation is that these individuals had abnormal levels of reflux, but that this defect caused such low levels of reflux-induced symptoms that their reflux disease never came to medical attention. The fact that reflux disease is asymptomatic in a significant Roxadustat cell line minority, whether BE is present or not, is now well established. It is relatively unusual for the observed extent of the metaplastic segment to increase over years, or for BE to appear de novo during clinical observation of reflux disease,2–4 even if this is not treated adequately. This suggests that, in most

cases, columnar metaplasia develops abruptly. Since only a minority (around 10–15%) of patients with reflux esophagitis has BE,2–4 there must be additional factors that play important roles in determining the apparently sudden development of BE. One plausible trigger factor is major acute esophageal mucosal injury, superimposed on continuing reflux-induced esophageal mucosal damage. This “double trouble” might prevent normal esophageal mucosal healing with squamous mucosa. Though this is an uninvestigated hypothesis, it has strong indirect support from

both observations of esophageal mucosal healing after endoscopic mucosal ablation or resection of areas of esophageal metaplasia and animal models; much data from these scenarios show consistently that the presence or absence of damaging reflux determines whether esophageal mucosa learn more that is severely and acutely injured heals with squamous or metaplastic columnar epithelium.2–4 Several categories of transient, but sometimes very severe esophageal mucosal damage buy Obeticholic Acid could cause “double trouble”, including, for example, acute infective esophagitis, “pill-induced” esophagitis

and the severe stasis “drunkard’s esophagitis”. These are speculative causes, but development of esophageal columnar metaplasia has been documented in a patient after severe mucositis caused by cancer chemotherapeutic agents23 and in another with caustic esophageal mucosal injury.24 Unfortunately, neither of these patients was adequately investigated for reflux disease.23,24 Interestingly, in the case of lye-induced injury, BE was confined to the mid-esophagus, presumably the area of most severe acute mucosal lye-induced damage.24 In a long-term follow-up study of achalasia patients treated by a relatively aggressive open esophageal/gastric myotomy, coupled with a Dor patch antireflux procedure, BE was found to develop in 12/67 (18%) of patients.25 This could represent “double trouble” of a different type—chronic esophageal stasis with a superimposed therapy-induced defect of gastroesophageal competence, since all but one of the BE patients had abnormal esophageal acid exposure. Several systemic factors have been identified which may predispose to columnar metaplastic healing of the previously squamous esophageal mucosa.

With the advent of longer acting factor concentrates, prophylaxis

With the advent of longer acting factor concentrates, prophylaxis regimens will almost certainly change. selleck kinase inhibitor This will involve changes in what trough levels are targeted and how frequently factor is administered. These products will cause investigators to consider the relative importance of trough vs. peak levels in the effectiveness of prophylaxis [14]. Changes in regimens may improve patients’ adherence to prophylaxis and patients’ quality of life. Definitions of the minimum infusion frequency

to still be considered prophylaxis will obviously change, as will definitions for full, intermediate, and low-dose prophylaxis. Finally, these long-acting factor concentrates will undoubtedly have cost repercussions and, given that these products will be substantially different from each other, they will raise important questions regarding how decisions about choosing one longer acting concentrate http://www.selleckchem.com/products/BAY-73-4506.html over another, and whether these products are interchangeable, are made. The following sections will deal with each of these implications of longer acting factor concentrates. With these newer concentrates, patients will have the option of lengthening the interval between infusions

while still achieving a factor trough level of >1%. Patients with severe haemophilia B who currently may take two infusions/week (104 infusions/year) might be just as protected from bleeds with perhaps one infusion every 1–3 weeks (18–52 infusions/year) [36]. Patients with severe haemophilia A might be able to receive two infusions/week (102/year) or one infusion every 3–5 days and still see more maintain a trough level of >1% [37]. This compares to current regimens, where on full-dose prophylaxis patients with severe haemophilia A will receive 156–182 infusions annually

(3–3.5 infusions/week). Decreasing the number of infusions should reduce the need for CVADs (and their consequent sequelae). A further benefit of decreasing the number of infusions is that when commencing patients on prophylaxis, fewer clinic visits will be required for those patients/families who are as yet unable to infuse factor at home. It will also reduce home care nurse visits where this is an option. All of this may translate into earlier start of prophylaxis, fewer missed doses, and overall better bleed protection. There may also be drawbacks to maximizing the interval between infusions, as it will result in patients having low factor levels for extended periods of time during which they may be physically active and at risk of bleeding. Until now, the relatively short half-lives of factor concentrates and their very high cost precluded patients maintaining trough levels during prophylaxis (even on full-dose prophylaxis) of much higher than 1%. Although such trough levels have been demonstrated to reduce the frequency of spontaneous bleeds, they certainly do not protect against traumatic bleeds where higher factor levels are required [38].

1a) confirms what others have found in the heterocytous cyanobact

1a) confirms what others have found in the heterocytous cyanobacterial taxa: typical cut-offs for taxon recognition (<95% for genera, <97.5% for species; Stackebrandt and Goebel 1994, Ludwig et al. 1998) are much too conservative for recognizing taxonomic diversity in this clade (Lyra et al. 2001, Flechtner et al. 2002, Rajaniemi et al. 2005, Řeháková et al. 2007, Kaštovský and Johansen 2008, Lukešová et al. 2009, Vaccarino and Johansen 2012).

For example, Aulosira bohemensis is as high as 97.8% similar LBH589 price to species in Cylindrospermum sensu stricto, well above the cut-off for different species within a single genus. We conclude that 16S rRNA gene similarity fails as a criterion for recognizing taxonomic diversity in the Nostocaceae, at least at above mentioned levels suggested for bacteria. This study is the first to examine Cylindrospermum using a polyphasic approach. It is evident that the combination of morphological and molecular data sets permits a clearer recognition of evolutionary diversity within the cyanobacteria. The high similarity of the ribosomal genes suggests recent rapid divergence within the genus, as morphological diversity exceeds variation observable in the housekeeping genes. GSI-IX Certainly, further study in Cylindrospermum and related genera in the Nostocaceae

is necessary to reveal the diversity within this important family. The research was supported by grants MŠMT/AMVIS LH12100, and a long-term research development project no. RVO67985939 (Academy of click here Sciences of the Czech Republic). Collection, isolation and sequencing of Cylindrospermum HA04236-MV2, as well as other cyanobacteria in our phylogenetic analysis from Hawaii were completed with support from National Science Foundation grant number DEB–0842702. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Access to the MetaCentrum

computing facility provided under the program National Grid Infrastructure MetaCentrum (LM2010005) is greatly appreciated. Table S1. Summary of Cylindrospermum strains newly isolated in course of this study. Strains CCALA 988-1000 are kept in parallel at the Institute of Soil Biology of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic in České Budějovice, Czech Republic under strain codes including information on year of isolation. Herbarium and sequence accession numbers are also provided. Table S2. Habitat type and locality of origin for the Cylindrospermum strains included in the study (where known). Table S3. Annotated alignment of 16S-23S ITS regions used in phylogenetic analyses of Cylindrospermum species in this study. Operons with both tRNA genes are aligned separately from operons lacking tRNA genes. Table S4. Similarity (P-distance) among representative strains of Cylindrospermum and diverse Nostocaceae in this study. Table S5.

Moreover, NASH/HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection and/o

Moreover, NASH/HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection and/or ablation were less likely to have histopathologic bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis-a finding corroborated by other studies.25,

32, 40 A total of 44.2% of NASH patients in this series had metabolic syndrome. As expected, hypertension, DM, and dyslipidemia were more common in this subgroup relative to other NASH patients. Yet, there were no differences in measures of hepatic synthetic function Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor or tumor or background liver histopathology between NASH patients with and without metabolic syndrome (Table 2). NASH patients with HCC have better OS after curative treatment compared to corresponding patients with HCV and/or ALD. Dramatic differences in demographics, comorbidities, severity of liver dysfunction click here at HCC diagnosis, and types of curative therapy precluded a “case-control” matching between groups. To account for these differences, we performed a multivariable analysis to determine those factors independently associated with postoperative outcomes. NASH patients had longer OS after curative treatment (median, not reached versus 52 months; P = 0.009; Fig. 4), compared to HCV/ALD counterparts that was independent of clinicopathologic factors, MELD score, and type of curative treatment (Table 3). Given (1)


in T stage, frequency of satellite lesions, tumor differentiation (Table 1), and RFS (Fig. 3) between groups, (2) the majority of patients had early-stage HCC, (3) most patients had well-compensated liver disease at HCC diagnosis, and (4) cause of death in the most patients was liver failure, this difference in OS was likely the result of differences in the type of background selleck inhibitor liver disease and not tumor aggressiveness. Among transplant patients, albumin <3.5 mg/dL and active HCV infection were associated with OS, suggesting that recurrent HCV infection is likely a key reason for the shorter survival of HCV/ALD transplanted patients compared to NASH counterparts. In resected and/or ablated patients, background NASH was associated with OS independent of severity of fibrosis, MELD score, and tumor stage. Importantly, discrepancies in OS between NASH and HCV/ALD patients were not the result of differences in postoperative mortality (e.g., death within 90 days of surgery). Increasingly recognized is the synergistic role of NASH with HCV infection in exacerbating liver disease and promoting HCC development.1, 9, 22, 43, 47 The incidence of NASH among all patients with active HCV infection who underwent curative treatment of HCC in our study was 7.2%—similar to that found in other series.

However, one patient of a family was classified into the cluster

However, one patient of a family was classified into the cluster different from her family, suggesting that E-PAS detected the sample distinct from that of her family on the transmission

route. Conclusions:  The E-PAS to output phylogenetic tree was developed since requisite material was sequence data only. E-PAS could expand to determine HBV genotypes as well as transmission routes. “
“Background and Aim:  There are insufficient data on renal safety during long-term adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) treatment. We aimed to elucidate the incidence and risk factors of renal impairment in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated Selleck LBH589 with ADV. Methods:  We retrospectively enrolled 687 CHB patients (51.4% with compensated cirrhosis) treated with ADV alone (18.2%) or in combination with lamivudine (81.8%) for more than 12 months. Renal

function was measured using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and renal dysfunction was defined as mild (20–30% decrease), moderate (30–50%), or severe (more than 50%). Results:  During the median treatment duration GSI-IX concentration of 27 months, 72 patients (10.5%) developed renal impairment, which was mild in 77.8% of cases, moderate in 20.8% of cases, and severe in one patient. The cumulative incidence of renal impairment at 1, 3, and 5 years was 2.6%, 14.8%, and 34.7%, respectively. Modification of the dosing interval or discontinuation of ADV was required in seven and three patients, respectively, and none of them showed a further decline in the eGFR. Although a univariate analysis revealed age, the number of exposure to radio-contrast dye, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma as risk factors find more of renal impairment, age was the only significant risk factor identified in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 1.048, 95% confidence interval = 1.019–1.076, P = 0.001). Conclusions:  Renal impairment in long-term ADV users was relatively frequent, but serious renal toxicity was rare, and

all cases were safely managed. Careful monitoring of renal function is required, especially in older patients. “
“Early detection and differentiation of malignant from benign pancreatic tumors is very essential as mass-forming pancreatitis is a frequently encountered problem. Positron emission tomography (PET) has a role in establishing the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma when the conventional imaging modalities or biopsies are nondiagnostic. In this prospective study, the utility of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography (CT) in the characterization of mass-forming lesions of the pancreas was reported. 18F-FDG-PET/CT was prospectively performed in 87 patients diagnosed to have periampullary or pancreatic mass. Lesions with focally increased FDG uptake in PET/CT were considered malignant, whereas those with diffuse or no FDG uptake were considered benign. Semiquantitative analysis with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was also calculated.