Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation was considered to be pres

Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation was considered to be present when end-expiratory (EE) V-CW increased in relation to resting values. There was a noticeable heterogeneity in the patterns of V-CW regulation as EEVCW increased non-linearly in 17/30 “hyperinflators” and decreased in 13/30 “non-hyperinflators” buy LOXO-101 (P < 0.05). EEVAB decreased slightly in 8 of the “hyperinflators”, thereby reducing and slowing the rate of increase in end-inspiratory (EI) V-CW (P < 0.05). In contrast,

decreases in EEVCW in the “non-hyperinflators” were due to the combination of stable EEVRC with marked reductions in EEVAB. These patients showed lower EIVCW and end-exercise dyspnea scores but longer Tlim than their counterparts (P < 0.05). Dyspnea increased and Tlim decreased non-linearly with a faster rate of increase in EIVCW regardless of the presence or absence of dynamic hyperinflation (P < 0.001). However, no significant between-group differences were observed

in metabolic, pulmonary gas exchange and cardiovascular responses to exercise. Chest wall volumes are continuously regulated during exercise in order to postpone (or even avoid) their migration to higher operating volumes in patients with COPD, a dynamic process that is strongly dependent on the behavior of the abdominal compartment.”
“Objective: Perivascular fat may have a local adverse effect on the vasculature. We evaluated whether www.selleckchem.com/products/kpt-8602.html thoracic periaortic Ro-3306 adipose tissue (TAT), a type of perivascular fat, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were associated

with vascular function.\n\nDesign and Methods: TAT and VAT were quantified in Framingham Heart Study participants using multidetector-computed tomography; vascular function was assessed using brachial artery vasodilator function, peripheral arterial tone, and arterial tonometry (n = 2,735; 48% women; mean age, 50 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 27.7 kg/m(2)). Using multiple linear regression, the relationships between TAT, VAT, and vascular measures was examined while adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors.\n\nResults: Mean TAT and VAT volumes were 13.2 and 1763 cm(3). TAT and VAT were associated with multiple vascular function measures after multivariable adjustment. After BMI adjustment, TAT and VAT remained negatively associated with peripheral arterial tone and inverse carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (P < 0.02); TAT was negatively associated with hyperemic mean flow velocity (P = 0.03). Associations of TAT with vascular function were attenuated after VAT adjustment (all P > 0.06).\n\nConclusions: Thoracic periaortic and visceral fat are associated with microvascular function and large artery stiffness after BMI adjustment. These findings support the growing recognition of associations between ectopic fat and vascular function.

Microscopic images (400x) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were c

Microscopic images (400x) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were collected. The integral optical density (IOD) value of positive NMDAR1 mRNA cells Napabucasin in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats, as well as the quantity and the IOD value of positive neuron-specific enolase mRNA cells in the dentate gyrus of juvenile rats, were analyzed with Image-Pro IPP6.0 software. At 30 days after birth, learning and memory parameters were measured in the juvenile rats using Morris water maze.\n\nRESULTS:

The quantity and the IOD value of positive neuron-specific enolase mRNA cells in the dentate gyrus of the hypoxia group juvenile rats were significantly less than the control group (P < 0.05), and also less than the Angelica group (P < 0.05). The IOD value of positive NMDAR1 mRNA cells in the dentate gyrus of the hypoxia group neonatal rats was significantly greater than the control group, and also greater than the Angelica group (P < 0.05). In the Morris water maze, the searching time during the probe trial and reversal probe trial was shorter in the hypoxia group juvenile rats compared with the control group, and the Angelica group was prolonged compared with the hypoxia group (P < 0.05).\n\nCONCLUSION: Intrauterine hypoxia increased expression of NMDAR1 mRNA in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats, reduced the number of dentate gyrus neurons, TPX-0005 manufacturer and negatively affected learning and memory in

juvenile rats. In contrast, Angelica sinensis injection improved the intrauterine

hypoxic condition, increased the number of dentate gyrus neurons, and improved the learning and memory deficits of the juvenile rats.”
“Background: Inhaled corticosteroid therapy suppresses nitric oxide levels (NO) of airway origin but not necessarily NO of alveolar or small. airway origin. Systemic therapy with an oral anti-leukotriene agent may suppress NO production in distal airways and alveoli not reached by inhaled therapy.\n\nMethods: Adult patients with mild asthma were treated for 3 weeks with inhaled fluticasone 250 jig twice daily then with inhaled fluticasone plus oral montelukast 10 mg daily buy Lazertinib for 3 additional weeks. We monitored exhaled NO (eNO), spirometry, lung volumes, and asthma symptoms scores at baseline and at the end of each treatment period. In a subset of patients, we continued with montelukast monotherapy and repeated these measurements.\n\nResults: In the 18 patients studied, pulmonary function parameters and asthma symptom scores were not altered significantly from baseline by any therapy. The total eNO at baseline was 55 +/- 35.3 ppb, dropping to 28.1 +/- 15.3 ppb (p = 0.005) after 3 weeks of fluticasone and to 23.5 +/- 14 ppb (p = 0.001 vs. baseline) after the addition of montelukast. The trend towards reduced total eNO with the combination therapy vs. monotherapy was not statistically significant. Alveolar eNO dropped from 4.2 +/- 2.4 at basetine to 3.0 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.

There was strong correlation (R-2) of 0 98 and 0 95 within the dy

There was strong correlation (R-2) of 0.98 and 0.95 within the dynamic range of the CAP am HIV v2.0 test between undiluted and diluted samples from quality assessment

standards and patients, respectively. The difference between viral load measurements of diluted and undiluted pairs of quality assessment standards and patient samples using the Altman-Bland test showed that the 95% limits of agreement were between -0.40 Log 10 and 0.49 Log 10. This difference was within the 0.5 Log 10 which is generally considered as normal assay variation of plasma RNA levels. Dilution of samples with 1 x PBS produced comparable viral load measurements to undiluted samples. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Early evaluation of cancer response to a therapeutic regimen can help increase the effectiveness of treatment schemes and, by enabling early termination of ineffective treatments, minimize toxicity, and Nocodazole mw reduce expenses. Biomarkers that provide early indication of tumor therapy response are urgently needed. Solid tumors require blood vessels for growth, and new anti-angiogenic agents can act by preventing the development of a suitable blood supply to sustain tumor GSK690693 mw growth. The purpose of this study is to develop a class of novel molecular imaging probes that will predict tumor early response to an anti-angiogenic regimen with the humanized

vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab. Using a bevacizumab-sensitive LS174T colorectal cancer model and a 12-mer bacteriophage (phage) display peptide library, a bevacizumab-responsive peptide (BRP) was identified after six rounds of biopanning and tested in vitro and in vivo. This 12-mer peptide was metabolically stable and had low toxicity to both endothelial cells and tumor cells. Near-infrared selleck screening library dye IRDye800-labeled BRP phage showed strong binding to bevacizumab-treated tumors, but not to untreated control LS174T tumors. In addition, both IRDye800- and (18)F-labeled BRP peptide had significantly higher uptake in tumors treated with bevacizumab than in controls treated with

phosphate-buffered saline. Ex vivo histopathology confirmed the specificity of the BRP peptide to bevacizumab-treated tumor vasculature. In summary, a novel 12-mer peptide BRP selected using phage display techniques allowed non-invasive visualization of early responses to anti-angiogenic treatment. Suitably labeled BRP peptide may be potentially useful pre-clinically and clinically for monitoring treatment response.”
“Imatinib mesylate (Imatinib) is a potent inhibitor of defined tyrosine kinases and is effectively used for the treatment of malignancies characterized by the constitutive activation of these tyrosine kinases, such as Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemias and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

The evaluation of multi-differentiation was performed using aliza

The evaluation of multi-differentiation was performed using alizarin red and oil red O and real-time PCR in vitro. The mineralization capability of the cells was examined in vivo by implanting with ceramic bovine bone (CBB) into subcutaneous of immunocompromised mice for 8 weeks. A three-dimensional pellet cultivation system is proposed for SHED and DPSCs to recreate the biological microenvironment that is similar to that of a regenerative learn more milieu.\n\nResults: SHED showed a higher proliferation rate and differentiation capability in comparison with DPSCs in vitro, and the results of the in vivo transplantation suggest that SHED have

a higher capability of mineralization than the DPSCs. The mRNA expression

levels of inflammatory cytokines, including matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were higher in SHED than that in DPSCs. In addition, the expression levels of Col l and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in SHED sheets were significantly higher than those in DPSCs sheets.\n\nConclusions: BMS-777607 price This study systematically demonstrated the differences in the growth and differentiation characteristics between SHED and DPSCs. Consequently, SHED may represent a suitable, accessible and potential alternative source for regenerative medicine and therapeutic applications. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We have developed

spherical beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) granules with outer pores and internal micro-channels for the use of filling bone voids. In this study, we describe the cellular behaviors associated with the variations in granule structure. By utilizing the biodegradability properties of β-Nicotinamide cell line beta-TCP, we documented four different modifications of the internal structures and the outer pores, which were based on beta-TCP concentration (between 0.25 and 0.67 g/mL). Pore size, specific surface area and compressive strength of the granules were also evaluated. These results were then compared with the biodegradability of beta-TCP using phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The significant reduction in the mass of the granules was demonstrated from the lowest beta-TCP concentration group at 7 days. To ascertain the interactions between biodegradability and cellular behaviors, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts were evaluated by 3D culture configuration. A significant difference in cell proliferation was demonstrated between the highest and the lowest beta-TCP concentration group at day 1 (P < 0.036), and steady increment was observed in all groups thereafter.

Moreover, the proposed methods compared well with the literature

Moreover, the proposed methods compared well with the literature reported method.”
“Probing neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) relies upon understanding the hemodynamic response to changes in neural activity. Although existing studies have extensively characterized the temporal hemodynamic response, less

is understood about the spatial and spatiotemporal hemodynamic responses. This study systematically characterizes the spatiotemporal response by deriving the hemodynamic response due to a short localized neural drive, i.e., the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response function (stHRF) from a physiological model of hemodynamics based on a poroelastic model of cortical tissue. In this study, the model’s boundary conditions are clarified and a resulting nonlinear hemodynamic wave equation is derived. From this wave equation, damped linear hemodynamic Ganetespib waves are predicted from the stHRF. The main features of these waves depend on two physiological parameters: wave propagation speed, which depends on mean Epigenetics inhibitor cortical stiffness, and damping which depends on effective viscosity. Some of these predictions were applied and validated in a companion study (Aquino et al., 2012). The advantages of having such a theory for

the stHRF include improving the interpretation of spatiotemporal dynamics in fMRI data; improving estimates of neural activity with fMRI spatiotemporal deconvolution; and enabling wave interactions between hemodynamic waves to be predicted and exploited to improve the signal to noise ratio of fMRI. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. Methods: An observational study was conducted using data from the suppliers of the smoking cessation programmes together with information on costs from health insurance company Achmea. National suppliers, general practitioners and healthcare centres offered four different programmes. (i) Behavioural support (=therapy); (ii) Behavioural

support combined with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); (iii) Behavioural support combined with smoking cessation aids Danusertib in vivo (=medication) (SCA); (iv) Behavioural support combined with NRT and SCA. The primary independent variable was the programme type, and the primary outcome was whether someone quitted smoking. To examine the effectiveness of the different programmes logistic regression and logistic multilevel analyses were performed. Bootstrapping was used to evaluate cost-effectiveness. Results: The results indicate that behavioural support combined with SCA has more quitters than the reference programme of behavioural support alone, and it also seems the most cost-effective programme for general practitioners and healthcare centres.

“Since 2006, the National Oncologic PET Registry has colle

“Since 2006, the National Oncologic PET Registry has collected prospective data on F-18-FDG PET performed for cancer indications in Medicare

beneficiaries under the coverage-with-evidence-development (CED) policy of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. In April 2009, coverage for PET performed to inform the initial treatment strategy of most solid tumors was expanded by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, but they continued to require CED for subsequent treatment strategy evaluations for many cancers. Methods: For all years, we assessed National Oncologic PET Registry data for bladder, kidney, pancreas, prostate, stomach, small MK-1775 mw cell lung, uterine, and all other cancers that required CED. We compared clinical profiles and changes in intended management by interval (before or after April 2009, designated as the 2006 and 2009 cohorts) for PET scans performed for restaging or suspected recurrence (2006, n = 30,911; 2009, n = 54,747) or for chemotherapy monitoring (2006, n = 10,234; 2009, n = 15,611). Results: There were slight differences between time periods but little difference by cancer type or patient age within a time period. For restaging or suspected recurrence, comparing the 2006 and 2009 cohorts, total change in intended

management for all cancer types was about 33% in those younger than 65 y and about SRT2104 ic50 35% in those older than 65 y (range by cancer type, 31%-41%). The referring physician impression of disease extent (restaging) or prognosis (chemotherapy monitoring) after PET was similar between cohorts. In the 2009 cohort, PET for chemotherapy monitoring was associated with a 25% increase in plans to continue therapy and a complementary decline in plans to adjust therapy. The greatest management impact of PET was during chemotherapy monitoring in the 2009 cohort, where a post-PET prognosis judged to be worse than before PET was associated with a plan to discontinue that therapy

in 90% and to change to a different therapy in 65%. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate a similar impact of PET on planned management of cancer patients before and after the 2009 expansion of coverage. These results strongly suggest it is unlikely that new useful information will be obtained by extending the coverage of certain selleck cancer types and indications only under CED. Future research on advanced imaging in the management of patients with cancer should focus on optimal sequencing and frequency of PET and other imaging modalities.”
“Sex differences in neural development are established via a number of cellular processes (i.e., migration, death and survival). One critical factor identified is the neonatal rise in testosterone (T) which activates gene transcription via androgen (AR) and, after aromatization to estradiol, estrogen receptors (ER alpha and beta). Recent evidence shows that AR and ERs interact with histone modifying enzymes.

Serotype determination of Salmonella is important for disease ass

Serotype determination of Salmonella is important for disease assessment, infection control, and epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a microarray system that targets the O antigen-specific genes was developed for simultaneously

selleck kinase inhibitor detecting and identifying all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Of these, 40 serogroups can be confidently identified, and the remaining 6, in three pairs (serogroups O67 and B, E1 and E4, and A and D1), need to be further distinguished from each other using PCR methods or conventional serotyping methods. The microarray was shown to be highly specific when evaluated against 293 Salmonella strains, 186 Shigella strains, representative Escherichia coli strains, and 10 strains of other bacterial species. The assay correctly identified 288 (98%) of the Salmonella strains. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 50 ng genomic DNA per sample. By testing simulated samples in a tomato background, 2 to 8 CFU per gram inoculated could be detected after enrichment. This newly developed microarray assay is the first molecular protocol that can be used for the comprehensive detection and Tubastatin A identification of all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Compared to the traditional serogrouping method, the microarray provides a reliable, high-throughput, and sensitive approach that can be used for rapid identification of multiple Salmonella O serogroups

“Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) metabolizes heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron. this website Biliverdin is subsequently metabolized to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. HO-1 has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of vascular disease. Pharmacological

induction or gene transfer of HO-1 ameliorates vascular dysfunction in animal models of atherosclerosis, post-angioplasty restenosis, vein graft stenosis, thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and hypertension, while inhibition of HO-1 activity or gene deletion exacerbates these disorders. The vasoprotection afforded by HO-1 is largely attributable to its end products: CO and the bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin. These end products exert potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-thrombotic actions. In addition, CO and bile pigments act to preserve vascular homeostasis at sites of arterial injury by influencing the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or leukocytes. Several strategies are currently being developed to target HO-1 in vascular disease. Pharmacological induction of HO-1 by heme derivatives, dietary antioxidants, or currently available drugs, is a promising near-term approach, while HO-1 gene delivery is a long-term therapeutic goal. Direct administration of CO via inhalation or through the use of CO-releasing molecules and/or CO-sensitizing agents provides an attractive alternative approach in targeting HO-1.

Corticosterone intakes were calculated for each bird and birds we

Corticosterone intakes were calculated for each bird and birds were then assigned to 4 intake groups. The groups were 0 (control group), 0 center dot 31-0 center dot 60, 0 center dot 61-0 center dot 90, 0 center dot 91-1 center dot 50 or 1 center dot 51 mg corticosterone/bird/d. 3. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in the 4 intake groups increased from around 1 ng/ml on the day before corticosterone treatment began to maximum mean concentrations of 13-18 ng/ml on day 14 of treatment. Mean corticosterone

concentrations did not change between day 14 of treatment and the day after treatment ended, and had decreased in only one of 4 intake groups one week later. 4. Mean body weight in the highest intake group remained significantly lower than in controls 22 d after corticosterone treatment ended. Whilst there was no clear effect of corticosterone on food intake during treatment, mean food intake https://www.selleckchem.com/products/lcl161.html in the three highest corticosterone intake groups was significantly lower than in controls in the week after treatment ended. The percentage of birds that laid an egg each day and egg weight were both decreased click here by corticosterone, and the percentage of birds that laid an egg each day remained significantly lower in the highest corticosterone intake group compared with controls in the third week after treatment ended.

5. It is suggested that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations in quail after treatment ended were maintained by a hyperactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis for Epoxomicin order at least one week. Although none of the negative effects of corticosterone were evident in the group of quail with the lowest corticosterone intakes, the findings of the present study show that corticosterone treatment can affect birds for up to several weeks after corticosterone intake ends.”
“A current hurdle in cancer management is the intrinsic or acquired resistance of cancer cells to chemical agents that restricts the efficacy of therapeutic

strategies. Accordingly, there is an increasing desire to discover new natural compounds with selective toxicity to combat malignancies. In present study, the cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activities of ferutinin, a terpenoid derivative from Ferula ovina, were investigated on human breast (MCF7) and bladder (TCC) cancer cells as well as normal fibroblasts (HFF3). The toxicity and DNA damage inducing effects of ferutinin were studied by MTT and comet assays, DAPI and PI staining and DNA laddering. The IC50 values of ferutinin were identified and compared with routine prescribed drugs, doxorubicin and vincristine, by MTT test. Alkaline comet assay and DAPI staining revealed DNA damage due to ferutinin, which was significantly (p smaller than 0.001) higher in MCF7 and TCC than HFF3 cells. Apoptosis induction was evidenced by PI staining and DNA laddering.

In general, this tuning is achieved by either chemical doping to

In general, this tuning is achieved by either chemical doping to introduce find more charge carriers, or external stimuli to lower the ratio of Coulomb repulsion to bandwidth. In this study, we combine experiment

and theory to show that the transition from well-localized insulating states to metallicity in a Ruddlesden-Popper series, La(0.5)Sr(n+1-0.5) Ti(n)O(3n+1), is driven by intercalating an intrinsically insulating SrTiO(3) unit, in structural terms, by dimensionality n. This unconventional strategy, which can be understood upon a complex interplay between electron-phonon coupling and electron correlations, opens up a new avenue to obtain metallicity or even superconductivity in oxide superlattices that are normally expected to be insulators.”
“Recently two cases of vaccine-associated neurologic disease have been reported in www.selleckchem.com/products/ly333531.html breastfed infants whose mothers had received live attenuated yellow fever vaccine. These two cases have focused attention on the transmission of attenuated

yellow fever vaccine virus from mother to infant via breastfeeding, and more generally of all other live attenuated viruses used to immunize nursing mothers. This article provides an overview of the rare literature on possible virus excretion in breast milk after vaccination of nursing mothers with live attenuated virus vaccine and on cases of infection via breastfeeding in infants whose mothers had been vaccinated postpartum. Before implementing NSC 23766 postpartum vaccination in a nursing mother, the vaccinator needs to weigh up the risk of transmission to and adverse effects in the baby from live vaccine virus against the beneficial effects of the vaccine for the mother, taking into account her need for

vaccination. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Thirty enrichment cultures of thermophilic microorganisms were obtained from Kamchatka terrestrial hydrotherms that reduced insoluble poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide (ferrihydrite) with and without direct contact between the cells and the mineral. Restricted access to the Fe(III) mineral was achieved by incorporation of ferrihydrite into alginate beads. According to phylogenetic analysis of 22 enrichment cultures by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments, Firmicutes were predominant among bacteria in all the variants. Microorganisms of the phylogenetic types Aquificae, Bacteroidetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Thermotogae were also revealed. The archaea revealed belonged to the genera Desulfurococcus, Pyrobaculum, and Thermofilum. In the case of free access to ferrihydrite, most of the phylotypes belonged to genera known for Fe(III) reduction. In the absence of direct contact with the mineral, together with known iron reducers, organisms for which ability to reduce Fe(III) was unknown were detected.


showed different mean particle sizes depending on


showed different mean particle sizes depending on the type of lipid used in the disperse phase. Particle sizes for the 3 lipids were: stearic acid (SL: 195 +/- 2.5 nm; SL+O: 138 +/- 6.0 nm); candelilla wax (SL: 178 +/- 1.7 nm; SL+O: 144 +/- 0.6 nm); carnauba wax (SL: 303 +/- 1.5 nm; SL+O: 295 +/- 5.0 nm). TEM results gave an insight into the practical morphology, showing plate-like and needle-like structures. DSC investigations also revealed that SL dispersions melted and crystallized at lower temperatures than the bulk. This decrease can be explained by the small particle sizes of the dispersion, the high-specific surface Selleck AS1842856 area, and the presence of a surfactant.”
“Just as in the Eukarya and the Bacteria, members of the Archaea need to export proteins beyond the cell membrane. This would be required to fulfill a variety of essential functions

such as nutrient acquisition and biotransformations, maintenance of extracellular structures and more. Apart from the Eukarya and the Bacteria however, members of the Archaea share a number of unique characteristics. Does this uniqueness extend to the protein secretion system? It was the objective of this study to answer learn more this question. To overcome the Limited experimental information on secreted proteins in Archaea, this study was carried out by subjecting the available archaeal genomes, which represent halophiles, thermophiles, and extreme thermophiles, to bioinformatics analysis. Specifically, to examine the properties of the secretomes of the Archaea using the ExProt program. A total of 24 genomes were analyzed. Secretomes were found to fail in the range of 6% of total ORFs (Methanopyrus kandleri) to 19% (Halobacterium sp. NRC-1). Methanosarcina acetivorans has the highest fraction of lipoproteins (at 89) and the lowest (at 1) were members of the Thermoplasma, Pyrobaculum aerophilum, and Nanoarchaeum equitans.

Based on the Tat consensus sequence, contribution LY2090314 ic50 of these secreted proteins to the secretomes were negligible, making up 8 proteins out of a total of 7105 predicted exported proteins. Amino acid composition, an attribute of signal peptides not used as a selection criteria by ExProt, of predicted archaeal signal peptides show that in the haloarchaea secretomes, the frequency of the amino acid Lys is much lower than that seen in bacterial. signal peptides, but is compensated for by a higher frequency of Arg. It also showed that higher frequencies for Thr, Val, and Gly contribute to the hydrophobic character in haloarchaeal. signal peptides, unlike bacterial signal, peptides in which the hydrophobic character is dominated by Leu and Ile. (C) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“In this paper, a numerical solution of flow and heat transfer in micropolar fluid outside a stretching permeable cylinder with thermal stratification and suction/injection effects.