SETRES and Henderson have a higher number of trees per hectare than RW19; however the frequency of returns in Fig. 3 was higher in RW19 than in the other two sites. This result could be explained by the number and area of the plots: 32 plots (400–1280 m2)
in RW19, compared to 24 plots (450 m2) in Henderson, and only 16 plots (900 m2) in SETRES. Among all the lidar metrics, LPI has the highest correlation with LAI (−0.757) (Table 4). A graphic representation of the LAI and the LPI contrast is shown in Fig. 4, where the high values of LAI are in concordance selleckchem with the low values of LPI. The crown density slices (1 m section) were calculated with the objective of examining the relationship of the shape of the frequency profiles to PCI-32765 datasheet LAI. The metrics that contributed to the best models were the proportion of returns at 1 m above the mode (Cd+1) and its standard deviation, the coefficient of variation at 4 m above the mode (Cd+4cv), and the proportion of returns at 4 m below the mode (Cd−4). Correlations of these metrics are shown in Table 4. Although the standard deviation at 1 m above the mode (Cd+1stdv) was the only one to have a statistically significant correlation with LAI, the other three metrics (Cd+1, Cd+4cv, and Cd−4) had a highly significant contribution to the LAI predictive models when
used in combination with other variables. The other variables, which were significantly correlated with LAI included Vegstdv, and Imean ( Table 4). Also, variables such as the Veg-percentiles, crown density slices,
and the rest of the densities, had significant correlations with LAI, but since their correlations were similar to the ones from the variables shown in Table 4, and they were not part of the best models observed, their Pearson coefficients have not been reported. Variables derived from all returns >0.2 m were also significantly correlated with LAI, but not as highly correlated as the variables derived from vegetation returns >1 m. Due to collinearity problems among Microtubule Associated inhibitor these metrics, only one set of variables was used at a time in the best subset analysis, and ultimately variables with higher correlations and models with better R2 were chosen. All variables from ground measurements showed significant correlations with LAI, that is mean tree height (0.270), mean crown length (−0.343), and number of trees (0.427). However, the best models generated from the best subsets analysis, did not have an increase in R2 compared to the models using lidar metrics only. Therefore, these models were not reported. Combinations of the metrics reported in Table 4 for models including 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 variables are summarized in Table 5. Radj’2 values ranged between 0.60 and 0.82 for 2 and 6 variable models, respectively.