5% (w/v polyacrylamide) non-denaturating PAGE and the gels were t

5% (w/v polyacrylamide) non-denaturating PAGE and the gels were treated as follows: A. transferred to a nitrocellulose

membrane and analyzed with antibodies directed against Hyd-1; B. transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane and analyzed with monoclonal MAPK inhibitor His-tag antibody; C. the gel containing purified Hyd-1 and the molecular mass standard was stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. The masses of the standard proteins (Sigma) are given on the right hand of the panel. Alternatively, the extracts and purified enzyme were: D. stained for 10 minutes under a 100% hydrogen CH5183284 clinical trial atmosphere with PMS and NBT as electron acceptors; or E. stained under a hydrogen atmosphere with BV and TTC as electron acceptors. The bands assigned to Hyd-1 activity or the His tagged version of HyaA-Hyd-1 activity are indicated on the right hand of the gels. Discussion Tetrazolium-based redox dyes are useful tools in zymographic detection of oxidoreductase enzyme

activity in non-denaturing PAGE because upon irreversible reduction they generate coloured, insoluble formazan complexes, which are advantageous in cumulative staining procedures. Triphenyl tetrazolium has been used for a considerable time as a means of distinguishing the hydrogenase enzymes in E. coli cell extracts [18, 19]. Measuring Hyd-3 activity in the presence of the H2-oxidizing enzymes was problematic in the past and visualizing it had not been successfully

accomplished check details until the current study was conducted. However, optimization of the in-gel assay conditions, together with the judicious use of defined mutants has allowed us for the first time to visualize Hyd-3 activity unequivocally after native-PAGE. The complexes exhibiting Hyd-3 activity migrate in native-PAGE at high molecular masses, similar to the trimer of trimers of the Fdh-N and Fdh-O with a mass of 500-550 kDa [21]. This suggests that the stoichiometry of the individual components in the FHL complex might be greater than unity. Nothing is currently known about the stoichiometry of the FHL complex components or the architecture of the HycE/HycG large and small subunit within the complex, and this will form the subject of future studies. The findings of the current study suggest that while the Fdh-H component of the FHL complex is required Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase for maximal activity of the complex, in its absence activity of the Hyd-3 can still be detected and its migration position in the gel system is very similar in extracts of the wild-type and the fdhF mutant. This suggests perhaps that the Fdh-H component is separated from the rest of the complex during electrophoresis. The lability of the Fdh-H activity has been noted previously [15, 43]. One possible reason why the Hyd-3 activity was previously overlooked after in-gel staining is the considerable overlap in the staining pattern of Fdh-N/O, Hyd-3 and Hyd-2.

Furthermore, the long gold

Furthermore, the long gold nanorods have stronger surface plasma resonance intensity than the spherical gold nanoparticles at long wavelength. This may be the reason why the conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells with long gold nanorods is higher than those of the cells with spherical gold nanoparticles

and short gold nanorods. Figure  8 shows the IPCE spectra of the DSSCs click here without and with gold nanoparticles added. The results of IPCE analysis indicate the number of incident photons inside the cells and their contribution to the efficiency. It is noted that all the IPCE spectra are similar Eltanexor mw in shape, and the IPCE value of the long gold nanorods is higher than those of the spherical gold nanoparticles and short gold nanorods in all wavelengths. It also provides an evidence that the conversion efficiency of DSSCs with long gold nanorods is higher than those of the cells with spherical gold nanoparticles and short gold nanorods. Figure 7 The spectra of EIS for the dye-sensitized solar cells without and with gold nanoparticles added. Table 2 Characteristic parameters of the DSSCs without and with gold nanoparticles Type κ eff τ eff R s R pt R k (S-1) (S) (Ω) (Ω)

(Ω) Without 5.901 0.169 5.843 4.317 10.25 Nanosphere 5.258 AZD1080 chemical structure 0.190 6.602 3.325 9.80 Nanorod (AR 2.5) 5.1944 0.193 6.805 3.674 9.52 Nanorod (AR 4.0) 4.804 0.208 6.425 5.864 8.16 Figure 8 The IPCE spectra of DSSCs without and with gold nanoparticles added. Conclusions In this study, we prepared different shapes of gold nanoparticles by the seed-mediated growth method to apply on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. The diameter of the spherical gold nanoparticles is 45 nm, the length and width of the short gold nanorods Selleck Baf-A1 are 55 and

22 nm, respectively, and the length and width of the long gold nanorods are 55 and 14 nm, respectively. The absorption spectrum of the TiO2 film with gold nanoparticles added is better than that of the film without gold nanoparticles, and the film with gold nanorods has stronger SPR intensity than that with spherical gold nanoparticles at long wavelength. This SPR effect results in higher conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells with long gold nanorods those with spherical gold nanoparticles and short gold nanorods. Acknowledgements This research is supported by the National Science Council, Republic of China, under contract nos. NSC 101-2221-E-150-041 and NSC 100-2221-E-150-058. References 1. O’Regan B, Grätzel M: A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO 2 films. Nature 1991, 353:737–740.CrossRef 2. McFarland EW, Tang K: A photovoltaic device structure based on internal electron emission. Nature 2003, 421:616–618.CrossRef 3. Wei BY, Lin HM, Kao CC, Li AK: Effect of calcination on photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanopowders. Mater Sci Eng 2003,35(1):64–69. 4.

After each tissue type removal, i e , tumoral and normal epitheli

After each tissue type removal, i.e., tumoral and normal epithelium and stromal tissue (avoiding capturing endothelial and immune cells), total RNA was extracted, amplified and hybridized onto Affymetrix GeneChip

U133 X3P arrays. Genes differentially expressed between groups were identified using Limma algorithm (p < 0.01) of the Bioconductor software suite and further assessed using gene ontology analysis, performed using the GO Tree Machine tool. When compared to epithelial tumoral cells, stromal cells presented enriched categories related to “T cell receptor signaling pathway” (p = 0.004); “protein folding” (p = 0.008); and “chemotaxis” (p = 0.006). The most prominently enriched category

Lenvatinib clinical trial in tumoral versus normal breast epithelium were “inflammatory response” (p = 0.002) and “response to stress” (p = 0.009). The evaluation of components separately resulted in distinct signatures that should help to better understand some of the molecular mechanisms involved in the complex heterotypic signaling between epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Supported by FAPESP/CNPq. Poster No. 32 HIF2alpha Overexpression Drastically Reduces HIF1alpha Protein Amounts in Melanoma Cells under Hypoxia Anne-Lise Steunou 1 , Laurence Nieto1, Eric Clottes1 1 Department of “Biologie du Cancer”, Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale-UMR 5089, Toulouse, France Hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF) are

key regulators of cellular adaptation to hypoxia in normal click here but also in pathologic conditions such as cancer development. They are involved in melanocyte transformation, tumour progression and metastasis of melanoma cells. HIF is a heterodimeric protein composed of an alpha subunit regulated by oxygen pressure and a beta subunit constitutively expressed. In melanoma, HIF1a and HIF2a subunits are recovered. Although both HIFa subunits are structurally homologous, they ZD1839 chemical structure exhibit different roles sometimes antagonist in the tumoral development. In order to understand these different behaviours, stable human melanoma cell lines overexpressing HIF2a protein were constructed. Surprisingly, in these cells, a decrease in HIF1a protein expression was monitored under hypoxia. HIF1a protein underexpression was inversely correlated with HIF2a protein amount. To explain this observation, transcript concentrations of HIF1a and aHIF were measured using a qRT-PCR assay. aHIF is a natural antisense of HIF1a transcript complementary to HIF1a mRNA 3′untranslated region, suspected to negatively regulate HIF1a mRNA amounts. Under hypoxia, aHIF RNA quantity was strongly this website increased in control transfected melanoma cells (empty vector) whereas aHIF induction was totally lost in stable cell lines overexpressing HIF2a.

Cell viability assay A549 cells were counted and seeded in 96-wel

Cell viability assay A549 cells were counted and seeded in 96-well plates at a density of 0.5 × 104 cells per well and incubated overnight to allow cell attachment. The cells were incubated with drug-loaded PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticle suspension, thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and Taxol® (Bristol-Myers

Squibb, New York, USA) at 0.25, 2.5, 12.5, and 25 μg/ml equivalent paclitaxel concentrations and blank thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles with the same amount of nanoparticles for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. At the determined time, the formulations were replaced with fresh DMEM containing MTT (5 mg/ml), and the cells were then incubated for additional 4 h. MTT-containing selleck screening library medium was aspirated off, and 150 ml of DMSO was added to dissolve the formazan crystal formed by living cells. The absorbance at 570 nm was measured by a microplate reader (Model Evofosfamide chemical structure 680, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hertfordshire, UK). Untreated cells were taken as a control with 100% viability, and cells without the addition of MTT were used as blank to calibrate the spectrophotometer to zero absorbance. IC50 values (concentration required to reduce cells viability by 50% as compared to the control cells) for each sample was calculated by curve fitting of the cell viability data. The results are expressed as mean ± SD of one representative experiment performed

selleck products in triplicate, Ibrutinib clinical trial and the experiments were performed three times. Ex vivo study The everted sac method was chosen for the measurement of transportation of paclitaxel across the intestine barrier. It was carried out according

to the slightly modified method that was described previously [33], as follows. First, a section of about 5 cm of the jejunum was removed from a male rat under ketamine (50 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (10 mg/kg) anesthesia and washed with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution of pH = 7.4. This section was then gently inverted with a glass rod, and a tube was inserted in one side of the section and tied securely with tape. The other side of the intestine was tied, and 1 mL Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution was poured through the hypodermic needle in the tube. The gut sac was placed in a medium saturated with 95% O2, 5% CO2, and contained the test sample in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution at 37°C. The test samples used include: (1) paclitaxel (1 mg) as Taxol®, and (2) thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles (equivalent to 1 mg of paclitaxel). In absorption studies, an O2 and CO2 mixture was bubbled into the intestinal mucosa to obtain intestinal peristaltic movement. At certain periods of time, 0.5-mL samples were drawn from inside the intestine and replaced with the same volume of fresh medium. The amount of transported paclitaxel in the samples was measured by the HPLC method. Statistical analyses Data were presented as the mean ± SD.

The biochemical regulation of type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII

The biochemical regulation of type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) in bacteria is most completely studied in Escherichia coli[2–4]. The scheme that has emerged places the first committed step in membrane phospholipid synthesis, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (glycerol-PO4) acyltransferase (PlsB), as a key regulatory point. How PlsB senses the requirement for new phospholipid is not completely understood, but one biochemical ISRIB datasheet regulator TPCA-1 order is ppGpp [5], a global regulator of gene expression [6]. The consequences of regulation at the PlsB step are relayed to FASII by long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP), a crucial allosteric regulator of two steps in initiation. The importance of acyl-ACP was first recognized by

the expression of acyl-ACP thioesterases in E. coli, which leads to run-away FASII activity and the secretion of copious amounts of free fatty acids [7–9]. Long-chain acyl-ACPs act as potent feedback inhibitors of FASII by blocking the initiation of new acyl chains at the FabH step [10, 11] and slowing the elongation of acyl chains by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase [12]. It is not clear whether this regulatory model for membrane lipid homeostasis in E. coli can be extended SAHA to Gram-positive bacteria. Notably, these organisms do not have a PlsB acyltransferase, but rather

use a novel activated acyl donor, acyl-phosphate (acyl-PO4), produced by PlsX from the acyl-ACP end-products of FASII, and have a unique glycerol-PO4 acyltransferase, PlsY, which only uses acyl-PO4[13]. Precise control over fatty acid synthesis appears even more important for Gram-positive pathogens like S. aureus, because unlike E. coli, they lack a fatty acid catabolic Casein kinase 1 pathway [14]. Expression of the genes responsible for phosphatidic acid biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus is controlled by FapR [15], which releases from its DNA

binding sites within the regulons multiple promoters when bound to malonyl-CoA [16, 17]. Although the transcriptional regulation of lipid synthesis is understood in considerable detail, much less is known about the biochemical regulation of FASII or the coupling of fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis. Glycerol-PO4 is the substrate for PlsY and a required precursor for membrane phospholipid synthesis, and is produced from dihydroxyacetone phosphate by glycerol-PO4 synthase (GpsA) [18]. Forty years ago Mindich [19] isolated a S. aureus glycerol auxotroph and demonstrated that phospholipid synthesis from [14C]acetate ceased abruptly following removal of the glycerol growth supplement, although free fatty acids continued to accumulate. Subsequent work revealed that the free fatty acids consisted primarily of 21-carbon branched-chain species that are longer than the normal 15–17 carbon fatty acids in normally growing cells [20]. Total protein synthesis continued following the removal of glycerol resulting in denser cells [20].

An ankle arthrodesis had been performed at another clinic 15 mont

7 %), and Charcot arthropathy of the ankle due to peripheral nerve disorder. An ankle arthrodesis had been performed at another clinic 15 months ago, but union was not achieved, and therefore, she underwent further surgery 12 months ago to fix her ankle. This treatment also failed resulting in nonunion, and so the woman was instructed to wear a patellar tendon-bearing brace for her ankle instability and pain (Fig. 2a, b). Her laboratory data, including serum levels of alkaline phosphate, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus, were normal, but her level of 1.25 vitamin D3 was low, and her left femoral bone density

was extremely low (0.54 mg/cm2) and 2.0 standard deviations below the normal value for her age (Table 1). Fig. 1 Radiographs of the femur. see more a 3D computed tomography images revealed an oblique fracture of the proximal shaft of

the femur. b Plain film taken 2 weeks after surgery. Callus formation is visible around the fracture site. c Plain film taken 12 weeks after surgery. Large callus and consolidation are visible Fig. 2 Radiographs of the femur. a Plain film of the ankle with Charcot arthropathy before arthrodesis. b Plain film taken before teriparatide therapy was initiated showing atrophic PD0332991 in vitro nonunion of the ankle. c Plain film and sagittal CT images showing atrophic nonunion of the ankle after multiple arthrodesis operations. d Plain film and sagittal CT image taken after 12 weeks of teriparatide therapy showing complete healing of nonunion Dimethyl sulfoxide Table 1 Laboratory data before and after teriparatide therapy   Reference Range, Age-adjusted Pretreatment After 3 months Protein (g/dl) Total 6.7–8.3 7.5 7.2 Albumin 3.9–4.9 3.1 3.5 ALP (IU/l) 104–338 281 1033 BUN (mg/dl) 8.0–20.0 21.7 19.1 Cre (mg/dl) 0.36–1.06 0.67 0.61 Na (mEq/l) 136–147 136 134 K (mEq/l) 3.6–5.0 4.6 4.9 Cl (mEq/l) 98–109 94 99 Ca (mEq/l) 8.8–10.2

9.8 9.1 IP (mEq/l) 2.5–4.5 4.1 3.6 Mg (mEq/l) 1.8–2.4 2 1.9 HbA1c (%) 4.6–6.2 13.5 13.2 ACTH (pg/ml) 7.2–63.3 22.4   Intact-PTH (pg/ml) 10–65 31   Calcitonin (pg/ml) 15–86 35   1.25-Vit D3 (pg/ml) 20–60 12 72 NTx (nmol BCE/mmol・Cr) 8–70 189 327 D-Pyr (nM/mM・Cr) 2.8–7.6 31.8 21.6 We Z-IETD-FMK in vitro treated the femoral shaft fracture with intramedullary nail fixation 29 days after the fracture occurred, because her chronic heart failure was too poor to allow for immediate surgery. We initiated teriparatide (20-μg subcutaneous injection daily) and alfacalcidol (1-μg oral administration daily) immediately after surgery because of severe osteoporosis and in an attempt to accelerate healing of the femoral fracture. There was no immobilization of the femur, but a non-weight-bearing period of 4 weeks was implemented postoperatively. From 2 weeks after the initiation of teriparatide therapy, plain radiography began showing callus formation on the femoral shaft fracture, and after 12 weeks, almost complete healing of the fractured bone was observed (Fig. 1b, c).

This finding is in accord with the XPS results described above F

This finding is in accord with the XPS results described above. Figure 4 AFM images. AFM images of pristine PET (PET), PET treated by

plasma and grafted with BPD (PET/plasma/BPD), PET treated by plasma and grafted with BPD and then with Ag nanoparticles (PET/plasma/BPD/AgNP), and PET treated by plasma and grafted with Ag nanoparticles previously grafted with dithiol (PET/plasma/AgNP*). R a is surface roughness of samples in nanometers. Similar results were obtained by electrokinetic analysis (Figure 5). After BPD grafting of plasma-treated PET, zeta potential decreases in comparison with pristine PET due to the GSK458 cell line presence of -SH groups and diphenyl rings of dithiol on the sample surface. Another change of surface chemistry Selleckchem Ralimetinib and charge is visible after the grafting with AgNPs, which is due to the presence of AgNPs on the sample surface. Since the silver concentration is low, the observed change is low, too. Grafting of the plasma-treated PET with AgNP* particles leads to only negligible change in zeta potential (compare PET/plasma and PET/plasma/AgNP* cases in Figure 5). Small

change in zeta potential shows that only a small amount of AgNP* particles is attached in this case. All these findings are in accord with the results of XPS analysis described above (see also Table 1). Figure 5 Zeta potential. Zeta potential determined on pristine (PET), PET treated by plasma (PET/plasma), PET treated by plasma and grafted with BPD (PET/plasma/BPD), PET treated by plasma and

grafted with BPD learn more and then subsequently with Ag nanoparticles (PET/plasma/BPD/AgNP), and PET treated by plasma and grafted with Ag nanoparticles previously grafted with dithiol (PET/plasma/AgNP*). HS means data obtained by the streaming current method and Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation; FM means data obtained by the streaming potential method and Fairbrother-Mastins equation. The systems studied may have potential application, e.g., in medicine as prevention of creation of bacterial biofilm [22]. Conclusions Two different procedures were used for coating of PET surface with until silver nanoparticles. Both procedures are based on the surface activation of PET by Ar plasma discharge and use of dithiol as binding reagent between silver nanoparticles and plasma-modified PET surface. XPS results confirmed creation of a silver nanoparticle-thiol layer (in the case of AgNP) on the PET surface. Rather large objects observed on AFM images show that a significant aggregation of deposited AgNPs takes place during the grafting procedure. Grafting with thiols and gold nano-objects generally leads to a decrease of the zeta potential. We achieved higher concentration of silver nanoparticles by deposition on PET grafted beforehand with dithiol. Acknowledgements This work was supported by GACR under projects 14-18149P (A.R.) and P108/12/G108. References 1.

3 Being the chi-square value 11 07 for 5 degrees of freedom and

3. Being the chi-square value 11.07 for 5 degrees of freedom and a 5% significance level, it cannot be rejected the hypothesis that the fit is acceptable. NTCP values have been recalculated for the

two arms with the optimized parameters; the values of clinical incidence fall now inside the confidence intervals of NTCP, as shown in Table 3. Table 3 Clinical incidence of ≥ G2 late toxicity and NTCP calculations   A B Clinical incidence 14.0% 12.3% NTCP (prior to optimization) TD50 = 80 Gy, α/β = 3 Gy 10 ± 3% 6 ± 2% NTCP (after optimization) TD50 = 76 Gy, α/β = 2.3 Gy 15 ± 5% 12 ± 4% Discussion In this work, a modeling of late rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer was performed. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 80 Gy in 40 fractions over 8 weeks click here (arm A) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks to the prostate (arm B). The comparison between the conventional and the hypofractionated arms allowed Selleckchem Alpelisib to evaluate the response of rectal toxicity to changes in fractionation. The crude rate of ≥ G2 late rectal toxicity were 14.0% and 12.3% for arm A and B respectively, thus very close to the actuarial values at 30 months (Fig. 3), indicating that this time can be considered

adequate to report the late rectal toxicity, as documented also by other studies [18, 22, 23]. The comparable toxicity rates observed in the two arms suggest that the hypofractionated www.selleckchem.com/products/Trichostatin-A.html regimes in prostate cancer are feasible, as previously reported in other studies [24–29], though using different fractionation schemes lambrolizumab and end point definitions. Lukka et al. [24] compared two fractionation schemes

for patients with localized prostate cancer, in a randomized trial designed to give 66 in 33 fractions or 52.5 Gy in 20 fractions to the prostate. The authors reported similar ≥ G3 late rectal toxicity incidence in both arms (1.3%), with a long median follow-up time of 5.7 years. Livsey et al. [26] also analyzed bowel toxicity in hypofractionated regime, giving to the prostate 50 Gy in 16 fractions. The reported ≥ G2 bowel toxicity was lower (5%), presumably due to the consistently lower total dose. Among all studies, the present work is best comparable to the study of Faria et al. [29], who analyzed late rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients receiving 66 Gy in 22 fractions. They reported a crude incidence of ≥ G2 late rectal toxicity of 18%, with a median follow-up time of 30 months. The deviation from our rate of toxicity probably arise from the different total dose (66 against 62 Gy). Assuming to prescribe to our patients of arm B 66 Gy in 22 fractions to the PTV, with the same relative dose distribution to the rectal wall, the average NTCP would result 17.5 ± 4.8% with our best-fit parameters.

This led to the conclusion that both, wild type and the hOGG1Cys3

This led to the conclusion that both, wild type and the hOGG1Cys326 variant-encoded

proteins should be functional and probably do not exhibit significant differences in repair activities and hence the polymorphism at codon 326 would probably be neutral [53, 55]. Many epidemiological studies have investigated the association of the Ser 326 Cys polymorphism in the hOGG1 gene indicating an increased risk for head and neck cancers but the reports are conflicting [51, 56, 57]. Studies on the prevalence of this polymorphism in susceptibility to oesophageal cancer also show conflicting C646 clinical trial results. Xing et al. [16] reported a positive association between the Cys 326 variant and oesophageal cancer risk in Asians population whereas

Tse et al. [58] reported no association in Caucasians. In the present study, the small number of samples did not allow us to make a comparison of the genotype distribution between cases and controls in order to determine whether the hOGG1 326Cys allele contributed to the risk of oesophageal cancer. However, the distribution of hOGG1 Ser 326 Cys genotype in our controls (0.44) is in agreement with the frequencies this website previously described in Caucasian population. This frequency is classically lower than that in Asians buy LY2835219 [21, 51, 59], suggesting that this allele may be differently distributed among ethnic groups and may not confer a particular susceptibility to oesophageal cancer in Caucasian population. The

allelic distribution of this polymorphism in our combined population followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Besides DNA repair activity, enzymes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics such as glutathione S -transferases may influence the extent science of oxidative damage in humans. We genotyped our study population for the GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes. Our results indicate no association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms and 8-oxodG levels in DNA from PBMCs. On the other hand, we found a statistically significant association between GSTP1 Val/Val homozygote carriers and a high level of 8-oxodG (Figure 2). However, as no obvious relationship was found between the frequency of the Val allele (Val/Val and Ile/Val combined) and the level of 8-oxodG, we consider this result questionable. Indeed, correlation of GST polymorphisms with 8-oxodG levels in WBCs or lymphocytes varies with the context of exposure: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [60, 61], benzene [62], fine particulate matters [63] and hyperbaric oxygen [64]. Conclusions In conclusion, although the power of our study is limited, it seems likely that vitamin levels in serum and polymorphisms in the hOGG1 or GST genes are not important modulators of 8-oxodG levels.

Journal of bacteriology 2003,185(15):4585–4592 PubMedCrossRef

Journal of bacteriology 2003,185(15):4585–4592.PubMedCrossRef

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Cashel M: (p)ppGpp: still magical? Annu Rev Microbiol 2008, 62:35–51.PubMedCrossRef 35. Metzger S, Dror IB, Aizenman E, Schreiber G, Toone M, Friesen JD, Cashel M, Glaser G: The nucleotide sequence and characterization of the relA gene of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 1988,263(30):15699–15704.PubMed 36. Sarubbi E, Rudd KE, Xiao Vorinostat in vitro H, Ikehara K, Kalman

M, Cashel M: Characterization of the spoT gene of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 1989,264(25):15074–15082.PubMed see more 37. Cashel M, Gentry DR, Hernandez VJ, D V: The stringent response. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and molecular biology. Volume 1. Edited by: Neidhardt FC. ASM Press; 1996:1458–1496. 38. Lemos JA, Brown TA Jr, Burne RA: Effects of RelA on key virulence properties of planktonic and biofilm populations of Streptococcus mutans. Infection and immunity 2004,72(3):1431–1440.PubMedCrossRef 39. Frota CC, Papavinasasundaram KG, Davis EO, Colston MJ: The AraC family transcriptional regulator Rv1931c plays a role in the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection and immunity 2004,72(9):5483–5486.PubMedCrossRef 40. Gallegos MT, Schleif R, Bairoch A, Hofmann K, Ramos JL: Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1997,61(4):393–410.PubMed 41. Makhlin J, Kofman T, Borovok I, Kohler C, Engelmann S, Cohen G, Aharonowitz Y: Staphylococcus aureus ArcR controls expression of the arginine deiminase operon. Journal of bacteriology 2007,189(16):5976–5986.PubMedCrossRef 42. Diep BA, Stone GG, Basuino L, Graber CJ, Miller A, des Etages SA, Jones A, Palazzolo-Ballance AM, Perdreau-Remington F, Sensabaugh GF, et al.