RESULTS We identified two principal components of teaching effect

RESULTS We identified two principal components of teaching effectiveness: charisma and intellect. There was no association between rating of intellect and TER. Rating of charisma and the display of an attractive photograph were both positively associated with TER and a significant interaction between these two variables was apparent (p smaller than 0.001). The regression coefficient for the association between charisma and TER was 0.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.41) when an attractive picture was displayed

and 0.83 (95% CI 0.66-1.00) when an unattractive picture was displayed (p smaller than selleck compound 0.001). CONCLUSIONS When medical students rate classroom teachers, they consider the degree to which the teacher is charismatic, although the relationship between this attribute and TER appears to be modified by the perceived physical attractiveness of the teacher. Further studies are needed to identify other variables that may influence subjective ratings of teaching effectiveness and to

evaluate alternative strategies for rating teaching effectiveness.”
“The concern regarding the ecotoxicological effects of nanomaterials in the terrestrial environment Epoxomicin concentration is increasing. Against this background, several studies have investigated the effects of different nanomaterials on various earthworm species. Since the earthworm is a representative

invertebrate present in soil and occupies an important trophic level, many studies have Selleckchem Fosbretabulin focused on earthworms. Understanding how and why nanoparticles are toxic to organisms is important to nanotoxicologists and ecotoxicologists. We have collated information from studies on the toxicity of metal- and carbon-based nanomaterials to earthworms in the soil matrix, and trends in the adverse effects of nanomaterials on earthworms were analyzed. Most studies showed that the survival and growth of adult earthworms are negligibly affected by nanomaterials in the soil. However, many studies reported that nanomaterials may result in a reduction in the reproductive activity. This study presents an intensive overall view of the ecotoxicological impact of nanomaterials on earthworms at the organism, cellular, and molecular levels.”
“Increased amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP) is a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously observed that the prolyl isomerase Pin1, which is down-regulated in AD, regulates A beta PP conformation accelerating cis/trans isomerization of the phospho-Thr668-Pro669 peptide bond, and that Pin1 knockout in mice increases the amyloidogenic processing of A beta PP, although the underlying mechanism is still unknown.

The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms regulating the

The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms regulating the anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory activity of Silybin.\n\nMethods: Experiments were performed on HSC isolated from human liver and activated

by culture on plastic.\n\nResults: Silybin was able to inhibit dose-dependently (25-50 mu M) growth factor-induced pro-fibrogenic actions of activated human HSC, including cell proliferation GS-7977 in vivo (P < 0.001), cell motility (P < 0.001), and de novo synthesis of extracellular matrix components (P < 0.05). Silybin (25-50 mu M), inhibited the IL-1-induced synthesis of MCP-1 (P < 0.01) and IL-8 (P < 0.01) showing a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Silybin exerts its effects by directly inhibiting the ERK, MEK and Raf phosphorylation, reducing the activation of NHE1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, P < 0.05) and the IkB alpha phosphorylation. In addition, Silybin was confirmed to act as a potent anti-oxidant agent.\n\nConclusion: The results of the study provide molecular insights into the potential therapeutic action of Silybin in chronic liver disease. This action seems to be mostly related to a marked inhibition of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a clear anti-oxidant effect and a reduction of

the direct and indirect pro-fibrogenic potential of HSC. (C) 2009 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Over the past decade, adipose tissue has been shown to produce numerous factors that act as hormones. Many of these act on the brain to regulate energy balance learn more via dual effects on food intake and energy expenditure. These include well-characterised hormones such as leptin, oestrogen and glucocorticoids and novel factors such as adiponectin and resistin. This review provides a perspective on the role of these

factors as lipostats.”
“Background. Calcium phosphate (Ca-P), mainly concerning hydroxyapatite (HA), is the main inorganic component of the body’s hard tissue. It is acknowledged that Ca-P biomaterial not only has osteoconduction but also can form bone bonding to host bone, making an ideal tissue-engineering scaffold. However, whether Ca-P biomaterial possesses osteoinductivity is still debated. The selleck inhibitor present study was performed to explore the expression level of osteoblast maker genes in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) grown on a Ca-P biomaterial.\n\nMaterials and methods. hMSCs were cultured on the HA/tricalcium phosphate-(TCP) double-phase ceramic. After coculture for 5, 10, 15, or 20 days, the cells were digested for isolation of total RNA. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the relative mRNA levels of Runx2, collagen type 1, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, all of which are the marker genes for osteoblasts. The mg63 cell was recruited as the reference and un-cocultured hMSCs as the negative controls.

Twenty-eight five-months old lambs were experimentally infected b

Twenty-eight five-months old lambs were experimentally infected by the oral route with 5000 third-stage infective larvae and allocated into four groups, i.e., untreated animals, animals treated intramuscularly with sodium selenite (0.2 mg kg(-1)), animals treated subcutaneously with copper (3.5 mg kg(-1)), and animals treated with sodium selenite (IM; 0.2 mg kg(-1)) and copper (SC; 3.5 mg kg(-1)). These animals received oat hay (Avena sativa) and commercial concentrate, totaling 15% of crude protein, 30% being derived from oat hay and 70% of the concentrate. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, eggs per gram of feces (EPG) and body

weight were assessed on the day of infection and after 20, 40, 60 and 80 days post-infection. The number of H. contortus adults was assessed at the end of the experiment. The selenium associated or not with copper reduced the effects JNK-IN-8 purchase of oxidative stress caused by infection. The groups supplemented with copper had increased body weight, and the

combination buy SN-38 of these two minerals reduced the EPG and number of H. contortus adults in lambs. The use of selenium associated with copper may help the control of infection by H. contortus. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of postoperative bacteriuria, pyuria and urine culture in patients with an orthotopic sigmoid colon neobladder replacement. Urine samples for bacteriuria, pyuria and urine culture, if necessary, were collected at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery and the presence of blood culture and antibiotic-resistant strains, and their treatments on positive urine culture cases were investigated. Of 209 for bacteriuria and 207 for pyuria urine samples with evaluable data, 95 (45.5%) were positive for bacteriuria and 76 (36.7%) had pyuria (10 or more white blood cells per high-power field). Totally, BLZ945 research buy 30 bacteria were isolated from urine culture of urinary tract infection (UTI) and Klebisiella

pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcos aureus and Enterococcus spp. strains were representatively isolated. The incidence of pyuria significantly decreased over time (P=0.041) but that of bacteriuria did not (P=0.107). In them, there were six bacteria (20.7%) with antibiotic-resistant strains. The antibiotics used for their treatments representatively were levofloxacin in five cases, tazobactam/piperacillin in three cases and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and cefepime, meropenem in two cases, respectively. In conclusion, these findings suggest that physicians taking care of sigmoid colon neobladder patients need to be aware of these high ratios of bacteriuria, pyuria and UTI, including bacteremia.”

In this review, we introduce recent technical advances in the vis

In this review, we introduce recent technical advances in the visualization of notch signaling during neural development and in the adult brain, and we discuss the physiological significance of dynamic regulation of notch signaling.”
“Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant bone tumor With a poor survival rate for patients with metastasis. Previous studies have shown that beside other proteases, distinct sets of cathepsins are involved in the process of metastasis of different tumors. In this study we investigated the

expression of cathepsin proteases in human osteosarcoma metastasis. First, the mRNA expression of 14 human cathepsins was studied in SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells and the highly metastatic LM5 and LM7 sublines by reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression

of Androgen Receptor Antagonist clinical trial cathepsin D, K, and L mRNA was found upregulated and that of cathepsin F, H, and V downregulated in the highly metastatic LM5 and LM7 cells. A subgroup of the cathepsin proteases was further studied at the protein level by Western blot analysis of cell extracts. The expression of cathepsin B and H was decreased and that of cathepsin D, K, and L was increased in the highly metastatic cell lines as compared to the SAOS-2 cell line. Diagnostic relevance of cathepsin K expression in osteosarcoma was revealed upon correlation of survival and metastasis with immunohistochemical cathepsin ON-01910 mouse K staining of biopsies collected from 92 patients prior to chemotherapy. Patients with metastatic high-grade osteosarcoma and low cathepsin K expression at diagnosis had a better prognosis than those with high expression. Thus, it appears that cathepsin K expression is of predictive prognostic value for patients with high-grade tumors and metastasis at diagnosis. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“We characterized the anemia in monkey collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) to evaluate whether this model is useful to analyze the basis of an anemia of inflammatory diseases. Cynomolgus monkey was immunized with bovine type II collagen on days 0 and 21. Blood samples were collected regularly and hematological Ilomastat parameters, biochemical parameters and cytokine levels

were monitored. Red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit (Ht), and hemoglobin (Hb) gradually decreased after immunization and reached the bottom on day 35. CRP rose rapidly after first immunization and reached a peak on day 21. Serum iron levels and transferrin (Tf) saturation were dropped after immunization and reached a bottom on day 28. Thereafter it returned to normal. On the other hand, ferritin levels increased after immunization. IL-6 levels showed positive correlation with CRP, and negative correlation with Hb, RBC counts and serum iron, but TNF alpha did not show any correlation. In conclusion, the anemia in monkey CIA is very similar to human anemia of inflammatory diseases concerning the changes of serum parameters.

Whether these aggregates are causal or protective for HD remains

Whether these aggregates are causal or protective for HD remains hotly debated. Dysfunctional mitochondrial axonal transport is associated with HD. It remains unknown whether the soluble or aggregated form of mHtt is FR900506 the primary cause of the impaired mitochondrial axonal transport in HD pathology. Here, we investigated the impact of soluble and aggregated N-terminal fragments of mHtt on mitochondrial axonal transport in cultured hippocampal neurons. We found that the N-terminal fragment of mHtt formed aggregates in almost half of the

transfected neurons. Overexpression of the N-terminal fragment of mHtt decreased the velocity of mitochondrial axonal transport and mitochondrial mobility in neurons regardless of whether aggregates were formed. However, the impai rment of mitochondrial

axonal transport in neurons expressing the soluble and aggregated N-terminal fragments of mHtt did not differ. Our findings indicate that both the soluble and aggregated N-terminal fragments of mHtt impair mitochondrial axonal transport in cultured hippocampal neurons. We predict that dysfunction of mitochondrial axonal transport is an early-stage event in the progression of HD, even before mHtt aggregates are formed.”
“Binding selleck of transcription factors (TFs) to regulatory sequences is a pivotal step in the control of gene expression. Despite many advances in the characterization of sequence motifs recognized by TFs, our ability to quantitatively predict TF binding to different regulatory sequences is still limited. Here, we present a novel experimental assay termed BunDLE-seq that provides quantitative measurements of IF binding to thousands of fully designed sequences of 200 bp in length within a single experiment. Applying this binding assay to two yeast TFs, we demonstrate that sequences outside

the core TF binding site profoundly affect TF binding. We show that IF-specific models based on the sequence or DNA shape of the regions flanking the core binding site are highly predictive of the measured differential IF binding. We further characterize the dependence of TF binding, accounting for measurements of single and co-occurring binding events, on the number and location of binding sites and on the TF concentration. Finally, by coupling our in vitro TF binding measurements, and another KPT-8602 cell line application of our method probing nucleosome formation, to in vivo expression measurements carried out with the same template sequences serving as promoters, we offer insights into mechanisms that may determine the different expression outcomes observed. Our assay thus paves the way to a more comprehensive understanding of TF binding to regulatory sequences and allows the characterization of IF binding determinants within and outside of core binding sites.”
“Objective: To present the first reported case of intraneural direct cochlear nerve stimulation in a human being. Study design: This is a case report.

The proposed estimators are investigated in simulation studies, a

The proposed estimators are investigated in simulation studies, and demonstrated empirically to have increased efficiency relative to some existing methods. The proposed methods are applied to a study of mortality among Canadian dialysis patients.”
“The currently recommended strategies for short nose elongation were designed primarily for the Caucasian nasal framework. For Oriental patients, more elongation often is required because a hypoplastic septal cartilage requires more elongation, resulting in a higher risk of complications. This report proposes a modified technique GSK923295 nmr for Oriental nose elongation, which

adjusts the pressure points after nasal elongation using an L-shaped implant. Between January 2007 and December 2009, 58 patients underwent Oriental nose elongation using an L-shaped,

porous, high-density polyethylene sheet implant. Augmentation rhinoplasty check details and conchal cartilage shield grafts were performed depending on the nasal shape. Pre- and postoperative nasal length, height, and projection as well as columella-labial angle, columella-lobular angle, and nasal tip angle were measured and compared. A patient satisfaction survey was performed postoperatively. All occurring complications were recorded. The postoperative nasal length was significantly elongated from 47.0 +/- A 10.4 mm to 49.3 +/- A 10.1 mm (p = 0.003), and the nasal height increased significantly from 48.5 +/- A 9.1 mm to 50.4 +/- A 8.5 mm (p = 0.011). The initially obtuse columella-labial angle improved significantly from 100.8A degrees A A +/- A 12.1A degrees to 92.5A degrees A A +/- A 15.5A degrees (p = 0.014). No significant changes were found regarding nasal projection, nasal tip angle, or columella-lobular angle. The majority of the patients

(91.3 %) were highly satisfied or satisfied with the aesthetic results. A major complication in terms of implant exposure was observed in one case. The minor complications included stiffness of the nasal tip (3 patients) and tip redness (1 patient). In Oriental nose elongation, the use of an L-shaped Alisertib mw graft is a feasible and safe treatment option that allows for an excellent aesthetic outcome and reduces the incidence of complications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors”
“BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors in women, their etiology is poorly understood. We have previously shown that multiple members of the retinoic acid (RA) pathway have altered expression in fibroids compared with normal myometrium.

The numbers of CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells within th

The numbers of CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells within the tumor were decreased at day 7 after intratumoral injection of MV-mIFNb or MV-mIFNb-NIS, but not after MV-GFP and PBS administration. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that MV-mIFNb changed the microenvironment of the mesothelioma by increasing innate immune cell infiltration and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Oncolytic MVs coding for IFNb effectively retarded growth of human mesotheliomas and prolonged survival time in several mesothelioma tumor models. The results suggest that

PLX3397 order oncolytic MVs that code for IFNb and NIS will be potent and versatile agents for the treatment of human mesothelioma. Cancer Gene Therapy (2010) 17, 550-558; doi:10.1038/cgt.2010.10; published online 9 April 2010″
“Objective To improve time to treatment, the effects

of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) symptoms on prehospital delay time (PDT) were investigated.\n\nMethods Patients with AMI completed a questionnaire on their AMI symptoms and their general knowledge of AMI symptoms.\n\nResults In total, 116 patients completed questionnaires. The mean PDT was 7.32.4h; the median PDT was 2.2h. Each patient experienced a mean of 3.6 symptoms during their AMI. PDT was significantly shorter in the following groups: patients with chest compression pain/chest discomfort, profuse sweating or dyspnoea than in patients with other symptoms; patients presenting with typical rather than atypical symptoms;

patients with pain scores >6 compared with scores 6; patients who were aware rather than unaware of AMI symptoms. Patients actually having AMI symptoms and patients being aware of AMI symptoms were inversely correlated with PDT. There was a linear relationship between pain scores and PDT.\n\nConclusion Public awareness of AMI symptoms should be enhanced, in order to shorten PDT and improve AMI survival rates.”
“The importance of calcium-binding proteins in immune response of vertebrates is determined, see more but whether they have the role in invertebrates is largely unknown. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis indicated that calcium vector protein (CaVP), a protein unique to amphioxus, shared 68% similarity in amino acid sequence with human and mouse calmodulin (CaM). CaVP cDNA was cloned into a bacterial vector pET-32a, and its His-tagged fusion protein was produced in Eschherichia coli cells (BL21). The recombinant CaVP was purified by Ni-NTA column and SDS-PAGE, and then utilized for antibody preparing. The prepared antibodies could recognize amphioxus CaVP with high specificity. Further analysis by Western blotting showed that CaVP was detected in muscle and humoral fluid of normal animals and appeared in gut of bacterial immunized or challenged amphioxus. Interestingly, gut CaVP was significantly higher in a healthy sub-group than a wounded sub-group post bacterial challenge.

This study evaluated whether the morphologic criteria [tumor-infi

This study evaluated whether the morphologic criteria [tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), peritumoral lymphocytes (PTLs), dedifferentiated morphology)] currently used to screen uterine cancer for further Lynch syndrome testing can be applied to ovarian cancer. Among

71 patients with pure ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma treated at a single institution, 13% had a tumor with TILs, 3% had PTLs, and none had dedifferentiated morphology. Overall, 10% of tumors had abnormal MMR protein status, defined as complete immunohistochemical loss of expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and/or PMS2. Each of these tumors with abnormal MMR status demonstrated MSI using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay evaluating 5 mononucleotide repeat markers. No relationship Selleckchem Citarinostat was found between patient age, TILs, PTLs, or a spectrum of other morphologic variables and MMR protein status/MSI. Only 1/7 tumors with abnormal MMR/MSI had TILs/PTLs. Among 14 patients who died, 12 (86%) had normal MMR status. Among 7 patients with tumors with abnormal MMR/MSI, 5 (71%) were alive without disease. Concurrent uterine tumor was present in 5/7 patients whose ovarian tumor had abnormal HIF pathway MMR/MSI. This study suggests that the morphologic criteria used to screen patients with uterine cancer for further Lynch syndrome testing are not applicable in patients with ovarian cancer. Although abnormal MMR/MSI did not carry

prognostic value in this study, it

did predict the involvement of the uterus by the tumor. Thus, in patients with ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma who undergo uterus-sparing surgery, abnormal MMR/MSI should prompt further diagnostic evaluation of the endometrium for tumor.”
“Background: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) revealed a positive action on progenitor cells released from bone marrow, and many mechanisms supported PTH as a tool to improve stem cell-based therapy in experimental models of ischemia. Elevated PTH resulted in increased mobilization of progenitors into the peripheral blood of patients affected by untreated primary hyperparathyroidism. A frequent finding in uremic patients is a higher PTH level, and different therapeutic strategies are adopted and implemented to achieve an intermediary PTH level. On the contrary, the amount of progenitors commonly results learn more to be extremely reduced.\n\nObjective: In the present study, we investigated, in a cohort of uremic patients, the effect of different levels of PTH on mobilization of progenitor cell populations.\n\nMethods: Eighty patients (26 women, 54 men) were enrolled. Following the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines, patients were divided in 3 groups for PTH levels: low-PTH group with a PTH level lower than 150 pg/mL (n = 25), KDOQI-PTH group with a PTH level between 150 and 300 pg/mL (n = 37), and high-PTH group with a PTH level higher than 300 pg/mL (n = 18).

Multiple regression analyses controlling for relevant background

Multiple regression analyses controlling for relevant background and cancer-related Alisertib variables tested the interaction effects of post-traumatic growth and intrusive thoughts.\n\nResults: Intrusive thoughts were related to poorer adjustment on all indices except physical health-related quality of life. However, post-traumatic growth moderated the effects of intrusive thoughts on positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and spiritual well-being in a protective fashion. That is, for those higher in post-traumatic growth, higher levels of intrusive thoughts were related to better adjustment.\n\nConclusions: The positive meaning

that individuals assign to their cancer experience as reflected in their reports of post-traumatic growth appears to be important in determining the impact of intrusive thoughts on post-cancer adjustment. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Introduction. In spite of intensive research during many years, pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains one of the deadliest cancers. The surgical intervention remains main possibility of treatment because chemotherapy and radiotherapy selleck screening library has a minimal impact on long-term survival. We are still looking for the weak points of this devastating disease. Materials and Methods. Pancreatic

tumor tissue samples were collected from 36 patients. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to evaluate expression of growth factors and immune infiltrates. Activity of MMP2 and MMP9 was assessed by gelatin zymography on 7.5% SDS-PAGE gel with 0.1% gelatin. Results. All growth factors were strongly expressed in pancreatic tumor tissue. We found that level of expression of c-Met receptor was higher

for G3 tumors than for G2 tumors. Also we found that active MMP2 was present at all stages of tumor while active MMP9 just at more advanced tumors. Abundant immune cells infiltration was distinctive for tumor tissue, especially macrophages were infiltrating tumor tissue. We found that amount of macrophages was associated with lymph nodes metastases. Conclusion. In our research we demonstrated that among many factors influencing tumor microenvironment c-Met receptor, infiltrating macrophages and MMP2 have significant find more influence on development and invasion of pancreatic cancer.”
“Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in Germany with an incidence of more than 100 deaths per year and 100,000 of population. The survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and resuscitation is not always inevitable, because emergency medical services (EMS) systems in Germany and Europe differ strikingly in terms of their quality of care.\n\nAnalysis of the German Resuscitation Registry of the DGAI and of clinical trials.\n\nThe best results can be achieved only if the entire chain of survival has been optimized.

Orally administered shikonin reduces induced UC in a dose-depende

Orally administered shikonin reduces induced UC in a dose-dependent manner, preventing the shortening of the colorectum and decreasing weight loss by 5% while improving the appearance of feces and preventing bloody stools. The disease activity index score was

much lower in shikonin-treated mice than in the colitic group, as well as the myeloperoxidase activity. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was reduced by 75%, activation of NF-kappa B was reduced by 44%, and that of pSTAT-3 by 47%, as well as TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 production. Similar results were obtained in primary macrophages culture. This is the first report of shikonin’s 3-Methyladenine ability to attenuate acute UC induced by DSS. Shikonin acts by blocking the activation of two major selleck chemicals llc targets: NF-kappa B and STAT-3, and thus constitutes a promising potential therapeutic agent for the management

of the inflammatory bowel disease.”
“Formalin injected in the knee joint of rats produces concentration-dependent nociception, edema, and plasma leakage (PL). Herein, we investigated the effect of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists in this model. Articular nociception was inferred from the paw elevation time (PET; seconds) during 1-minute periods of stimulated walking, determined every 5 minutes, throughout a 60-minute experimental session. Edema was evaluated by the increase in articular diameter (AD; mm), and PL was measured by the amount of Evans blue dye in the synovial fluid (PL; mu g/mL). Loratadine and cetirizine, given systemically, both increased the PET. None of the treatments changed the AD and PL. Loratadine given locally with formalin increased the PET but was without effect ZD1839 in vivo when given in the contralateral knee. Systemic loratadine was also without effect when formalin was coinjected with sodium cromoglycate. Histamine and the selective H1R agonist 2-pyridylethylamine decreased the PET and potentiated morphine spinal analgesia, but did not affect the AD and PL. Cetirizine prevented the antinociceptive effect of the H1R agonist. The N-methyl-D-aspartate/histamine-site

agonist tele-methylhistamine coinjected with formalin only increased PET. Serotonin alone had no effect on the PET and increased the AD, and the highest dose increased the PL. When coinjected with formalin, serotonin only caused hypernociception, and the highest dose also increased AD. NAN 190, cyproheptadine, and ondansetron (respectively, 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists) decreased the PET without changing the AD or PL. Collectively, these results suggest that in rats, the H1R plays an antinociceptive role within the knee joint, while serotonin receptors play a pronociceptive role.\n\nPerspective: The present study revealed an antinociceptive mechanism that has previously not been detected by traditional nociceptive tests.